Bangalore

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Bangalore (Kannada: ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು; pronounced /'Template:IPA/ in Kannada and /'Template:IPA/ in English) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is located on the Mysore Plateau in Southwestern Karnataka. With an estimated metropolitan population of 6.1 million (2006), it is India's third largest city and fifth largest metropolitan area. Though historical references to the city predate 900 CE, a modern written history of continuous settlement exists only from 1537, when Kempe Gowda I, who many regard as the architect of modern Bangalore, built a mud fort in the city and established it as a province of the imperial Vijayanagara Empire. On December 11, 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted Jnanpith awardee U R Ananthamurthy's suggestion to rename Bangalore to its Kannada name, Bengalūru. The new name was expected to become effective from 1 November 2006 <ref name=EnterBengaluru>"Exit Bangalore, enter Bengaluru, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai". The Times of India. 2006. The Times Group. 6 Dec. 2005</ref>. However, due to changes in the administration of the state government, it is unclear whether the proposed name change will be implemented <ref name=NameChange>"Cabinet to be expanded on Friday, Name Change". The Hindu. 2006. The Hindu Group. 14 Feb. 2006</ref>.

During the British Raj, Bangalore developed as a centre for colonial rule in South India. The establishment of the Bangalore Cantonment brought in large numbers of migrant Tamil, Telugu and North Indian workers to help service the development of infrastructure in the cantonment <ref name=BritishRaj>Destination: Bangalore. Dir. Jim Kerns. 2005</ref>. The city's temperate climate, which is milder than the those of other cities in the country, has been a major attraction to people from other parts of India. After India gained independence in 1947, Bangalore evolved into a manufacturing hub for public sector heavy industries — prominently aerospace, space and defence industries. The establishment and success of high technology firms in Bangalore after the liberalisation of India's economy has led to the growth of India's information technology (IT) industry. Bangalore is referred to as the Silicon Valley of India and accounts for 35% of India's software exports <ref name=swshare>Bangalore Crumbling". The Sunday Express. 2006. Indian Express Newspapers (Mumbai) Ltd. 5 Dec. 2004</ref>. Home to prestigious colleges and research institutions, the city has the second-highest literacy rate in the nation. However, as a large and growing metropolis in the developing world Bangalore continues to struggle with problems such as air pollution, traffic congestion, and crime.

Contents

Origin of name

The name Bangalore is an anglicised version of the city's name in the Kannada language, Bengalūru. The earliest reference to the name Bengalūru was found in a 9th-century Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a veera kallu (literally, "hero stone", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, Bengaluru is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 AD. It states that the place was part of the Ganga kingdom and was known as Benga-val-oru, the "City of Guards" in old Kannada.

There are also theories that the name has a floral origin and is derived from the tree Benga or Ven-kai, also known as the Indian Kino Tree (Pterocarpus marsupium) <ref name=BangaloreGuide>"History of Bangalore". Bangalore Guide 2006. Bangalore Guide</ref>. A popular anecdote (although one contradicted by historical evidence) recounts that the 11th-century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place benda kaal-ooru (literally, "town of boiled beans"), which was eventually colloquialised to Bengalūru. The city as it is known today was christened by Kempe Gowda I.

History

Template:Main Image:Bangalore Historical Map.jpg An inscription found near Begur reveals that the district was part of the Ganga Dynasty until 1004 CE and was known as Benga-val-oru, the City of Guards in old Kannada. The Cholas of Tamil Nadu ruled over the city from 1015 to 1116 until the town came under the rule of the Hoysala Empire. Modern Bangalore was founded by a feudatory of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who built a mud fort in the proximity of modern Bangalore in 1537. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his gandu bhoomi or Land of Heroes <ref name=gandubhoomi>"About Bangalore - History". Department of IT and Biotechnology<u>. 2006. Government of Karnataka.</ref>. Within the fort the town was divided into petes (IPA:/Template:IPA/) or localities. The town had two main streets: Chickpete Street ran east-west and Dodpete Street ran north-south. Their intersection formed Dodpete square — the heart of Bangalore. Kempe Gowda's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four famous towers that marked Bangalore's boundary <ref name=bglrHist2>Vagale, Uday Kumar. "Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Future Projections". <u>Digital Libraries and Archives. 2006. Virginia Tech. 27 Apr. 2004.</ref>. During the Vijayanagara rule, Bangalore was also referred to as Devarāyanagara and Kalyānapura ("City Auspicious") <ref name=OtherNames>K. Chandramouli. "The City of Boiled Beans". The Hindu. 2006. The Hindu Group. 25 Jul. 2002</ref>. After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. It was captured by the Maratha chief Shahaji Bhonsle prior to a Mughal invasion. The city became part of the Kingdom of Mysore when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb leased Bangalore to Chikkadeva Raja Wodeyar in 1689. After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Haider Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de-facto ruler of Mysore. The kingdom later passed on to Haider Ali's son Tipu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore. Bangalore was eventually incorporated into the British East Indian Empire after Tipu Sultan was defeated and killed in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799). The British returned administrative control of the Bangalore pete to the Maharajah of Mysore, choosing only to retain the cantonment under their jurisdiction. Under British India, Bangalore was incorporated into the Madras Presidency. The Kingdom of Mysore relocated its capital from Mysore city to Bangalore in 1831 <ref name=bglrHist3>"Mysore (CAPITAL)". Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911 ed.</ref>. Two important developments during this period contributed to the rapid growth of the city — the introduction of telegraph connections and the rail connection to Madras in 1864. Image:Bangalore South Parade.jpgIn the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the pete, whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas, and the Bangalore Cantonment, whose residents were mostly migrants from Tamil Nadu <ref name=bglrHist2>Digital Libraries and Archives</ref>. Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that dramatically reduced its population. Telephone lines were laid to help co-ordinate anti-plague operations, and a health officer was appointed to the city in 1898. In 1906 Bangalore became the first city in India to have electricity, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra. Bangalore's reputation as the Garden City of India began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to beautify the city. After Indian independence in August 1947, Bangalore was included in the dominion of Mysore State. Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81, which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka and Kodagu. By 1961 Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000 <ref name=bglrHist2>Digital Libraries and Archives</ref>. In the decades that followed, Bangalore's manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as Motor Industries Company (MICO; a subsidiary of Robert Bosch GmbH), which set up its manufacturing plant in the city. Bangalore experienced a boom in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalows to multistorey apartments <ref name=realestate>Benjamin, Solomon. "Governance, economic settings and poverty in Bangalore".Environment&Urbanization Vol 12 No 1 2006. United Nations Public Administration. 1 Apr. 2000.</ref>. The establishment of multinational companies such as ANZ Bank and Citibank as well as international fast food chains such as Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) in the 1990s continued to expand foreign investment in Bangalore. The city witnessed one of its largest media events ever when it hosted the 1996 Miss World beauty pageant, which was seen by over two billion viewers worldwide <ref name=pbs>"A Globalized Culture Clash". Public Broadcasting Service. 2006. Public Broadcasting Corporation. Jan 2003.</ref>. Many of these developments were met with opposition from groups fearing the loss of the city's national and linguistic identity. Widespread protests organised against the Miss World contest by women's organisations led to the arrests of about 1,000 protesters. In 1996 farmer activists attacked and damaged the KFC outlet in Bangalore, accusing it of "representing western food habits which are not needed in India" <ref name=KFC> "McDonald's plans expansion despite war fears:Reuters". Rediff.com. 2006. Rediff.com India Limited. 7 Nov. 2001</ref>. Through the 1990s the state government promoted large-scale development projects such as the construction of sports stadia and exclusive apartment complexes, which resulted in the demolition and resettlement of poorer settlements to distant peripheral locations <ref name=realestate>1990s</ref>. In the mid-1990s, Bangalore's economy grew many fold because of the software boom. Contrastingly, employment opportunities in almost all other sectors, in the city's manufacturing industries, declined.

Geography

Template:Main Image:Wikipedia Bangalore Map.jpgBangalore is situated in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is located in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 920 m (3,018 feet). It is positioned at Template:Coor d and covers an area of 2,190 sq km (1,360 sq miles). Bangalore District borders with Kolar District in the northeast, Tumkur District in the northwest, Mandya District in the southwest, Chamarajanagar District in the south and the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu in the southeast. The Bangalore Urban district is divided into three taluks: Bangalore North, Bangalore South and Anekal. The Bangalore North taluk is a relatively more level plateau, while the Bangalore South taluk has an uneven landscape with intermingling hills and valleys.

The topology of Bangalore is flat except for a ridge in the middle running NNE-SSW. The highest point in Bangalore is Doddabettahalli, which is 962 m (3,156 ft) and lies on this ridge <ref name=bglrGeo>"Studyarea- Bangalore". Centre for Ecological Sciences. 2006. Indian Institute of Science.</ref>. There are no major rivers running through the city, though rivers Arkavathi and Kaveri cross paths at the Nandi Hills, 60 km (37 mi) north of Bangalore. River Vrishabhavathi, a minor tributary of Arkavathi, takes birth within the city at Basavanagudi and flows through the city. Together, rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi carry much of Bangalore's sewage. A sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 sq. km (133 mi) of the city and connects with five sewage treatment centers located in the periphery of Bangalore <ref name=sewage>"Each drop of water counts". Deccan Herald. 2006. The Printers (Mysore) Ltd. 11 Mar. 2004</ref>. In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet the town's water requirements. Later in the 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks, commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41), provided adequate water supply to the growing city. Bangalore currently relies heavily on water reservoirs from the Kaveri basin and on Vrishabhavathi and Arkavathi water treatment plants to meet the water needs of its population of six million. Bangalore receives 800 million litres (211 million gallons) of water a day, more than any other Indian city <ref name=bglrWater> "Thirsty Bangalore seeks divine help". Hindustan Times. 2006. HT Media Ltd. 9 Jun. 2003.</ref>. However, water shortages, especially during the summer, are commonplace. A random sampling study of the Air Quality Index (AQI) of twenty stations within the city indicated scores that ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of traffic concentration <ref name=EIA>"Environmental Impact Analysis". Bangalore Metropolitan Rapid Transport Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 2005.</ref>. For purposes of comparison, India's metropolitan cities Ahmedabad, Delhi and Kolkota were classified as having heavy pollution, while Bangalore and Mumbai were categorised as having moderate pollution <ref name=pollcomparison>Panwar, Sharma. "Air Quality: Status And Classification Of Cities Based on Indicators". Tata Energy Research Institute. 8 Dec. 2004</ref>. Image:ViewFromNandi.jpg Bangalore has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tanks, the largest of which are Madivala tank, Hebbal lake, Ulsoor lake and Sankey tank. Groundwater occurs in silty to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments. Bangalore receives adequate rainfall from the Northeast Monsoon as well as the Southwest Monsoon. The Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC) is the most dominant rock unit in the area and includes granites, gneisses and migmatites, while the soils of Bangalore consist of red laterite and red, fine loamy to clayey soils <ref name=EIA>soils</ref>. Vegetation in the city is primarily in the form of large deciduous canopy and minority Coconut trees. Bangalore has not been affected by major seismic activity due to it being located in a seismically stable zone (Zone II). Only mild tremors have been recorded in the city.

Due to its elevation, Bangalore enjoys a pleasant and equable climate throughout the year. The highest temperature recorded is 38 °C (102 °F) and the lowest is 11 °C (52 °F) <ref name=climate>"Historical Weather for Bangalore, India". Weatherbase. 2006. Canty and Associates LLC. </ref>. Winter temperatures rarely drop below 12° C (54 °F), and summer temperatures seldom exceed 38 °C  (100° F). The wettest months are August, September and October, in that order. The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequent thunderstorms, and occasional squalls cause power outages and local flooding. Most of the rainfall occurs during late afternoon/evening or night, and rain before noon is infrequent. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 180 mm (7 in) recorded on 1 October 1997.

Civic administration

Bangalore City officials
Mayor Mumtaz Begum
Municipal Commissioner Kalaikurchi Jairaj
Police Commissioner Ajai Kumar Singh

Image:Bangalore HighCourt.jpgThe Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BMP, Bangalore Metropolitan Council) is the municipal corporation in charge of the civic and infrastructural assets of the city. The city council comprises 100 elected representatives, called "corporators", one from each of the 100 wards (localities) of the city. Elections to the council are held once every four years, with results being decided by popular vote. A mayor and commissioner of the council are also elected through a quota system from a Scheduled Castes and Tribes candidate or to an Other Backward Class female candidate <ref name=bmp>"Narayanaswamy is new Mayor". Deccan Herald. 2006. The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited. 30 Nov. 2004.</ref>. Bangalore's rapid growth has created several problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike has found challenging to address. A 2003 Battelle Environmental Evaluation System (BEES) evaluation of Bangalore's physical, biological and socioeconomic parameters indicated that Bangalore's water quality, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem were close to ideal, while the city's socioeconomic parameters (traffic, quality of life) scored poorly .<ref name="bees">"Environmental Impact Analysis". Bangalore Metropolitan Rapid Transport Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 2005. (page 30)</ref>. The BMP has been criticised by the Karnataka High Court, citizens and corporations for failing to effectively address the crumbling road and traffic infrastructure of Bangalore <ref name=highcourt>[http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/jun292005/state1911192005628.asp " High Court pulls up BMP for bad roads"]. Deccan Herald. 2006. The Printers (Mysore) Ltd. June 29. 2005</ref>. The unplanned nature of growth in the city resulted in massive traffic gridlocks that the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems. Some of the flyovers and one-ways mitigated the traffic situation moderately but were unable to adequately address the disproportionate growth of city traffic <ref name=bees />. In 2005 both the Central Government and State Government allocated considerable portions of their annual budgets to address Bangalore's infrastructure <ref name=budget>"Budget to trigger growth of metros: PM". MSN India. 2006. Microsoft India. 12 Feb. 2006.</ref>. The Bangalore Mahanagara Palike works with the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) and the Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF) to design and implement civic projects. Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka Composting Development Corporation. The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality is dumped in open spaces or on roadsides outside the city <ref name=solidwaste>van Beukering, Sehker, et al. "Analysing Urban Solid Waste...". International Institute for Environment and Development. 2006. March 1999.</ref>.

The Bangalore City Police (BCP) is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The BCP has six geographic zones, includes Traffic Police, City Armed Reserve, Central Crime Branch and City Crime Record Bureau and runs 86 police stations, including two all-women police stations <ref name=bcp>"Bangalore City Police". Bangalore City Police. 2006. Karnataka State Police.</ref>. As capital of the state of Karnataka, Bangalore houses important state government facilities such as the Karnataka High Court, Vidhana Soudha and Raj Bhavan. Bangalore contributes two members to India's lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, and 24 members to the Karnataka State Assembly <ref>"Members of Karnataka Legislative Assembly". National Informatics Centre. 2006. Government of Karnataka</ref>. Electricity in Bangalore is regulated through the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL). Like many cities in India, Bangalore experiences scheduled power cuts, especially over the summer, to allow electricity providers to meet the consumption demands of households as well as corporations.

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Economy

Template:Main Image:Bangalore UtilityBuilding.jpg Bangalore's US$ 47.2 billion economy makes it a major economic centre in India <ref name=slumpop>"All India figures at a glance". Department of Economics and Statistics. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 16 Dec. 2005. </ref>. As of 2001 Bangalore's share of US$ 3.7 billion in Foreign Direct Investment was the 3rd highest for an Indian city <ref name=Globalization>Mathur, Om Prakash. "Impact of globalisation on cities and city-related policies in India". 2006. The Urban Partnerships Foundation Aug. 2003</ref>. In the 1940s industrial visionaries such as Sir Mirza Ismail and Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya played an important role in the development of Bangalore's strong manufacturing and industrial base. Bangalore is headquarters to several public manufacturing heavy industries such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) and Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT). In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city. Bangalore is called the Silicon Valley of India because of the large number of Information Technology companies located in the city which form the largest contributors to India's US$ 12.2 billion (Rs. 54,000 crore) IT and software export market <ref name=Nasscom>"Annual Report, 2004-05". Nasscom. 2006. Nasscom</ref>. Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main "clusters" — Software Technology Parks of India, Bangalore (STPI); International Technology Park Ltd. (ITPL); and Electronics City. The Electronics City in Bangalore was the brainchild of R.K. Baliga, the first Chairman and Managing Director of Keonics who dreamt of making it the Silicon Valley of India in 1978. Infosys and Wipro, India's 2nd and 3rd largest software companies, are headquartered in Electronics City. As headquarters to 38% of global SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies, Bangalore's place in the global IT map is prominent <ref>"IT Scenario Karnataka - IT Industries". Department of IT and Biotechnology. 2006. Government of Karnataka. </ref>. The growth of Information Technology has presented the city with unique challenges. Ideological clashes between the city's IT moguls, who demand an addressal of the infrastructural problems of the city, and the traditionally bureaucratic state governments, whose electoral base is primarily rural Karnataka's agricultural workers, are aplenty. In July 2004 Wipro CEO Azim Premji threatened to pull his company out of the city, stating, "We do not see the situation (state of Bangalore's infrastructure) improving in the near future." <ref name=WiproQuit>"Wipro threatens to quit Bangalore". Rediff. 2006. Rediff.com India Limited. 27 Jul. 2004.</ref>. The Hosur Road, which connects Bangalore to the Electronics City, is a heavily congested road in the city. The road is also part of the National Highway (NH7) and therefore witnesses heavy truck traffic as well. Biotechnology is a rapidly expanding field in the city. Bangalore accounts for at least 97 of the approximately 240 biotechnology companies in India. Biocon, headquartered in Bangalore, is the nation's leading biotechnology company and ranks 16th in the world in revenues. The Bangalore Stock Exchange is the largest in South India.

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Transport

Image:Bangalore HAL.jpgBangalore's HAL Airport (IATA code: BLR) is India's fourth busiest <ref name=AAI>"Traffic Trends". Airports Authority of India<u>. 2006. Government of India.</ref> and functions as both a domestic and international airport. Direct flights from Bangalore fly to destinations in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The liberalisation of India's economic policies has led to increase in the number of domestic carriers within India, with several low-cost carriers such as SpiceJet, Kingfisher Airlines, Jet Airways and Go Air servicing the city. Air Deccan, with its hub in Bangalore, has the most number of flights into and out of Bangalore. Unlike most airports in the country which are controlled by the Airports Authority of India, the quasi government-owned Hindustan Aeronautics Limited owns and operates Bangalore's HAL Airport, and also uses it to test and develop fighter aircraft for the Indian Air Force. The dual-vested interests in the airport along with an increase in air traffic to Bangalore led to a prolonged tussle for operational ownership between the HAL and the Government of Karnataka. In 1991 plans for a large-scale Bangalore International Airport were conceived; however, the project was repeatedly delayed due to red tape and friction between the private companies involved and the state government. Clearance for the construction of the US$ 288 million (Rs. 1,300 crore) airport was eventually granted in June 2004, with Siemens AG, Zurich Airport and Larsen and Toubro as its major private stakeholders. Construction work on the airport began in July 2005.

Image:Bangalore autorickshaw.jpgBangalore is well connected to the rest of the country through the Indian Railways. The Rajdhani Express connects Bangalore to New Delhi. The city is also connected to Mumbai, Chennai (formerly Madras), Kolkata and Hyderabad and to other major cities in Karnataka. Three-wheeled, black and yellow auto-rickshaws, referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport. They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxi service within Bangalore is provided by several operators commonly referred to as City Taxis and can take in up to four passengers and are usually metered and relatively more expensive than auto-rickshaws. Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) operates a fleet of 3,207 BMTC public buses, servicing an average of 2,800,000 commuters. <ref name=bmtc>"At Present". <u>Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation. 2006. Government of Karnataka.</ref>. An intra-city rapid rail transport system called the Bangalore Metro is being developed and is expected to be operational in 2008. The Metro, once ready, will encompass a 33 km (20.5 mi) elevated and underground rail network, with 32 stations in Phase I and more being added in Phase II.

Demographics

Template:Main Image:Bangalore Hindu Temple.jpgAs of 2005 Bangalore had a population of over six million, making it the 4th largest city in India, after Mumbai, Kolkata and New Delhi, and the 27th largest city in the world. With a decadal growth rate of 32%, Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian metropolis after New Delhi for the decade 1991–2001 <ref name=Globalization>globalization</ref>. Residents of Bangalore are referred to as Bangaloreans. While Kannadigas accounted for 38% of the population, sizable minorities from Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra exist <ref name=kannadapop>"Kannadigas assured of all support". <u>The Hindu. 2006. The Hindu Group. 23 Jul. 2004</ref>. Scheduled Castes and Tribes account for 14.3% of the city's population. Kannada, the official language of the state of Karnataka, is widely spoken in Bangalore, as are Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and Hindi. English is the lingua franca of the city's white-collar workforce.

According to the 2001 census of India, 79.37% of Bangalore's population is Hindu — roughly the same as the national average <ref name=GISData>"Census GIS Household". censusindiamaps.net. 2006.</ref>. Muslims comprise 13.37% of the population, which again is roughly the same as the national average, while Christians and Jains account for 5.79% and 1.05% of the population, respectively, double that of their national averages. Women make up 47.5% of Bangalore's population. Bangalore has the second highest literacy rate (83%) for an Indian metropolis, after Mumbai. The city's workforce structure is predominantly non-agrarian, with only 6% of Bangalore's workforce being engaged in agriculture-related activities. Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slums <ref name=indiancityslums>"Total Population, Slum Population...". Census of India, 2001. 2006. Government of India.</ref> — a relatively low proportion when compared to other third world cities such as Mumbai (54%) and Nairobi (60%) <ref name=slumpop2>Warah, Rasna. "Slums Are the Heartbeat of Cities". The EastAfrican. 2006. National Media Group Ltd. 6 Oct. 2003</ref>. Bangalore's per capita income, at 2001 levels is US$ 1,110.03 (Rs. 53,625) <ref name=slumpop>slumpopulation</ref>.

The 2004 National Crime Records Bureau statistics indicate that Bangalore accounts for 9.2% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India. Delhi and Mumbai accounted for 15.7% and 9.5% respectively.<ref name=NCRB>"Crime in Mega Cities". National Crime Records Bureau. 2006. Government of India. 2004.</u></ref>. Communal tensions between the city's two largest ethnic groups, the Kannadigas and the Tamils, have led to numerous altercations. In early 1991, tensions between the two groups flared up with the proposed installation of a statue honouring the Tamil poet Thiruvalluvar in the city. Widespread agitation and protests organised by groups sympathetic to Kannadigas led the Commissioner of the Bangalore City Corporation to withdraw permission to unveil the statue, which remains wrapped under cloth <ref name=statue>Nair, Janaki. "Battles for Bangalore...". Centre for Study of Culture and Society. 2006.</ref>. Later the same year, the Karnataka Government, acting upon the directives of the Government of India, agreed to release 205 tmc of water from the river Kaveri to the Government of Tamil Nadu, which resulted in anti-Tamil riots that left 20 people dead <ref name=kaveri>"Bollywood ban in language fight". BBC News. 2006. British Broadcasting Corporation. 26 Nov. 2004</ref>. After the demolition of the Babri Masjid in the North Indian city of Ayodhya in 1992, communal violence between Hindus and Muslims spread to Bangalore during which Muslim houses and huts as well as an Arabic school for Muslim girls were raided and torched <ref name=hindumuslim>"Communal Violence and Denial of Justice". Human Rights Watch. 2006. Apr. 1996</ref>. In 1997 the demolition of a stone structure in a mosque in Jayanagar led to violence in sensitive areas in the city that left four dead.

Culture

Template:Main Image:Bangalore Glasshouse.jpg Image:Bangalore BrigadeRoad.jpg Bangalore is known as the Garden City of India because of its climate, greenery and the presence of many public parks, including the Lal Bagh and Cubbon Park. Deepavali, the "Festival of Lights", transcends demographic and religious lines and is celebrated with great vigour. Dussera, a traditional celebratory hallmark of the old Kingdom of Mysore, is another important festival. Other traditional Indian festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi, Sankranthi, Eid ul-Fitr and Christmas are also celebrated. Bangalore is home to the Kannada film industry, which churns out about 80 movies each year in Kannada. Most Kannada movies are musicals, and their soundtracks are very popular in the city. The popularity of Kannada movies has spawned a new colloquial dialect, Bangalore Kannada, which draws upon youth culture and influences from English and other Indian languages. The diversity of cuisine available is reflective of the social and economic diversity of Bangalore. Roadside vendors, tea stalls, South Indian, North Indian, Chinese and Western fast food are all very popular in the city. Udupi restaurants are very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine. Bangalore has many clubs and bars, and is sometimes referred to as the Pub Capital of India. Popular nightspots in Bangalore include Pecos and TGIF. Bangalore is also a popular venue for Western rock concerts, with Mark Knopfler, Bryan Adams, The Rolling Stones, Jethro Tull, The Gypsy Kings and Roger Waters having performed in the city.

Cricket is the most popular sport in Bangalore. A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including current Indian cricket team captain Rahul Dravid, Gundappa Vishwanath and Anil Kumble. Many of the city's children play gully cricket on the roads and in city's many public fields. Bangalore's main international cricket stadium is the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, which hosted its first match in 1974. Bangalore has a number of elite clubs, like the Bangalore Golf Club, Bowring Institute and the exclusive Bangalore Club, which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill and the Maharajah of Mysore.

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Education

Image:Iisc-Founder.jpg Schools in Bangalore are either run by the state government or by private, sometimes religious, organisations. Private schools in Bangalore typically use English as the medium of instruction and are affiliated with either the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) or the Karnataka Secondary Education Examination Board. After completing their secondary education, students typically enrol in Junior College (also known as Pre-University) in one of three streams — Arts, Commerce or Science. Upon completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or professional degrees.

Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, Chief Engineer and later Diwan of Mysore (1912–19), played an instrumental role in shaping the early history of education in Bangalore <ref name=sirM>"Sir M. Visvesvaraya". Karnataka.com. 2006. Karnataka.com</ref>. The University of Agricultural Sciences was started as a vocational school under his directives. He was also closely associated with the establishment of the Indian Institute of Science in 1909. Bangalore is home to several other nationally renowned universities such as the Indian Institute of Management Bangalore (IIM-B), National Law School of India University and Bangalore Medical College. St. John's Medical College and Bangalore Medical College are consistently ranked among the top ten medical schools in India. Bangalore's IT industry recruits extensively from the city's large pool of engineering colleges. The National Centre for Biological Sciences(NCBS), is one of the three places in India where Stem cell research is being done.International Institute of Information Technology - Bangalore (iiit-b), is one of the new generation premier Graduate schools in India offering M.Tech. and PhD programs in the field of Information Technology.

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Media

Bangalore commands one of the largest mass media markets in India. Major national English newspapers have subsidiary publications for the city, including the Times of India (Bangalore Times), Hindustan Times, The Hindu and Indian Express. The Deccan Herald is the largest circulating newspaper in the city and is headquartered in Bangalore. The Prajavani, a sister publication of the Deccan Herald, is the largest circulating Kannada newspaper in the city. Newspapers in other regional languages are also available in the city. National periodic journals and magazines such as India Today, Frontline and Outlook India also circulate heavily in the city. Kannada periodic magazines such as Sudha, Taranga and Mayura are also widely circulated.

In addition to the numerous AM radio stations run by All India Radio (AIR), Bangalore has three FM radio stations — Radio City, Gyanvani and All India Radio's Rainbow FM. Plans to add six new FM stations have been approved by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Successful bidders for radio broadcast licensing in Bangalore include Radio Mirchi and Radio Mid-Day <ref name=media>"Radio ga-ga: 6 more FM stations". Deccan Herald. 2006. The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited. 6 Jan. 2006.</ref>. The state run, nationally broadcast Doordarshan provides both national and localised television coverage. Cable Television providers air independently owned private networks such as STAR TV and Udaya TV, whose cable channels are broadcast in English and Hindi, as well as in Kannada.

See also

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Notes

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References

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External links

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