Multinational force in Iraq

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(Redirected from Coalition of the willing)

"Coalition of the Willing" is a phrase which has been used by the administration of US President George W. Bush to refer to the nations whose governments militarilly supported the United States position in the Iraq disarmament crisis and later the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation duties (see Post-invasion Iraq, 2003–2006). The original list in March 2003 included 48 members.[1] In most of those same countries the majority of the population did not support this endeavour.[2]


2003 invasion of Iraq

The Bush administration declared that Operation Iraqi Freedom was, as its name implies, intended to provide relief from tyranny -- and that it would promote stability in the region and pre-empt an Iraqi attack on the U.S. At the time, both major US political parties gave credence to intelligence reports that Iraq possessed and intended to use Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) -- as Saddam Hussein had exercised on the Kurds. Bipartisan U.S. support quickly dwindled following the invasion, and the opposing Democratic Party began saying that the invasion would be justified only if WMD were actually found in significant numbers in Iraq. When only few shells and, reportedly, inactive labs were found, the nation's support for the invasion dropped measurably.

The Occupation of Iraq

Nominally, the occupation ended on June 28, 2004, but those who question the legitimacy of the US-appointed interim government believe it continued. Indeed, the expulsion of occupation forces is a major stated aim of Iraqi guerilla fighters. U.S. president Bush disagreed with the rationale of the insurgents, claiming that "...what is causing violence in Iraq is the fact that Iraq is heading toward freedom." [3]

The U.S. deployed more than seven-eighths of the soldiers in the occupying coalition with the majority of other troops coming from the United Kingdom and the rest made up from several other allies. Although their status as Coalition Provisional Authority, or "Occupying Powers" under a UN resolution, changed when the new government asserted its sovereignty on June 28, the mission of the multinational force has decreased only by small numbers.

As of March 10, 2006 the United States Department of Defense has confirmed that 2,308 US troops have been killed fighting in Iraq as U.S. forces struggle to put down the Iraqi insurgency, which continues years after President George W. Bush declared the end of "major combat operations" in Iraq.

As of late 2004, a study by the British medical journal The Lancet said that around 100,000 Iraqis had been killed since the start of the invasion on March 19th 2003 (see Casualties of the conflict in Iraq since 2003).

As of March 2006, Iraq Body Count, which has been tracking American and Iraqi casualties since the beginning of military action in 2003, has estimated the amount of Iraqi civilians killed between 35,000 and 39,000.

The "Coalition of the Willing" phrase

Image:Coalition of the willing original.PNG

The origin of the phrase

The precise origins of the phrase are unknown, but it has been used since at least the late 1980s to refer to groups of nations acting collectively, often in defiance of the United Nations. Specific uses of the phrase in the context of disarming Iraq began appearing in mid 2001.

The first American President known to have publicly mentioned acting with a "Coalition of the Willing" in place of a UN Mandate was Bill Clinton. The phrase was later used by George W. Bush to refer both to actions in Afghanistan and Iraq, although usage primarily focused on the latter.

Criticism of and humorous comment on the phrase

Iraq War critics such as John Pilger have pointed out that 98% of the military is from the US and Britain and is therefore accurately described as a predominantly Anglo-American force rather than as a coalition.

In a 2004 presidential debate, a democratic presidential candidate John Kerry questioned the size of the coalition, saying that Bush portrayed the effort as a widespread international consensus when actually only two major allies of the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, had comparatively substantial numbers of soldiers on the ground during the initial invasion. President Bush responded by saying "Well, actually, he forgot Poland". The phrase You forgot Poland subsequently became a humorous shorthand for the perception that most members of the coalition were not contributing much to the war effort compared to the main three allies. The majority of the population in most countries involved did not support the endeavour or their nation's participation.[4] Many of the nations in the coalition formed for the 2003 invasion of Iraq stood to receive substantial aid packages and trade benefits from the United States in return for their support. It is for this reason that some editorial cartoons and political commentators have mockingly referred to them as the "coalition of the billing." Another term, used by those who believe coalition nations lied about aspects of the war, is "coalition of the shilling." Due to the high percentage of states that were small, impoverished nations in need of United States financial aid, a New York Times editorial referred to it as the "Coalition Of Welfare States."

U.S. Senator Robert Byrd, ranking Democrat on the Senate Appropriations Committee, has referred to the coalition formed for the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the acronym COW, expressing his concern that the United States was being "milked" as a "cash cow." A Canadian MP Carolyn Parrish referred to the "Coalition of the Willing" as the "Coalition of the Idiots". She was reprimanded for these comments, and was eventually removed from the Liberal Party caucus.

List of nations in the Coalition

The following nations have troops serving in Iraq in some capacity and the numbers were last updated on 11th July 2005. Changes/updates as of 11th July, 2005

Image:Multinational force in iraq countries.PNG

Over 100,000 soldiers

  • Template:Country - As of March 2006 there were around 132,000 Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps personnel in West, North and Central Iraq [5]; a planned reduction to 115,000 was cancelled due to losses and intense Iraqi resistance in Al Anbar province and a Shia uprising in the South of the country in late 2004. An increase to 153,000 was supposed to have taken place in early-mid 2005, but such plans never materialized. As of 11 April, 2006 2,372 American military personnel from every branch of the US military have been killed in Iraq: 1,865 in engagements and ambushes (assault rifle and sniper fire; RPG, Katyusha and mortar attacks; the shooting down of several helicopters and a jet; but mostly roadside bombings) as well as vehicle & helicopter accidents which occurred as a result of hostile fire. 507 were killed in non-hostile incidents including a small number of drownings, illnesses, electrocutions etc, but mostly accidental vehicle & helicopter crashes and weapon discharges. At least 17,469 American military personnel have been wounded in action. On the first of December 2005, Democratic Representative John Murtha predicted that the US Military would withdraw from Iraq 'within a year' because it is "broken, worn out" and "living hand to mouth". At least 126 American contractors (57 of which are private military) have been killed in Iraq, in addition to two State Department employees and several civilians affiliated with various Christian organisations.[6]. 1 soldier was confirmed captured while another is listed as missing following an ambush on April 9th 2004. An American journalist was killed in April 2003 when the military vehicle he was travelling in swerved to avoid Iraqi gunfire and plunged into a canal, while another, David Bloom, died of a heart attack after being cramped in an armoured vehicle for hours. Another, Steven Vincent was abducted and shot dead in July 2004 in Basra.

Over 5000 soldiers

  • Template:Country - 8,361 (previous listed number: 7,900) troops in South East Iraq; also commanding a number of other coalition troops throughout South Eastern provinces. 3,500 more are stationed in The Persian Gulf region. The British forces command the Multi-National Division (South East) which consists of forces from several other countries. Prime minister Tony Blair had considered an expansion of 1,500 to 2,000 troops to replace the troops of Spain and other departing nations. However, military commanders as well as former diplomats criticizing US military tactics put this into question. The UK has lost 104 soldiers in Iraq: 74 in ambushes, engagements or other attacks (including the shooting down of a C-130 Hercules transport plane which killed 10 soldiers). Out of the remaining 30, the cause of death included accidents, friendly fire, illnesses, and suicide. See also: Operation Telic (operational name for UK's involvement in Iraq) for further information on the UK's contribution. On 13 March, 2006, it was announced that the UK planned to withdraw about 800 troops by the end of May. [7] At least 28 British contractors (22 of which are private military) have been killed in Iraq.[8] One British journalist, Gaby Rado, died in Iraq in March 2003 after falling from a hotel roof, while another was shot and killed in June.

1000 - 5000 soldiers

  • Template:Country - About 3,300 South Korean troops are officially deployed in Iraq (as of October 1 2005). In early December 2005, the National Assembly voted [9] 10-3 with one abstention for the withdrawal of 1000 troops in the first half of 2006, thus approving a government proposal. The main tasks of the troops are to offer medical services and build and repair roads, power lines, schools and other infrastructure. The 2,500 soldiers, mostly combat engineers of the Zaytun ("olive-peace") Division were deployed in late September 2004 to Irbil in the Kurdish-controlled region of northern Iraq, and combined with the 660 humanitarian troops that have been operating in southern Iraq since April 2003, South Korea has the third-largest military presence in the war-torn nation after the United States and Britain. There are also large numbers of Korean mercenaries, most notably from the NKTS, a private Korean security company, operating in Iraq. They are estimated to number between 70 to 700, and most protect South Korean civilian assets as well as other coalition civilian assets. 4 South Korean commerical and technical contractors have died in Iraq: one in a building accident, while the other three were killed by insurgents.
  • Template:Country - Independent contingent of 2,600 troops [10], the 'Garibaldi Brigade' is currently serving a 4 months duty, including Signal & transport soldiers, mech. infantry, engineers, helicopterists and Carabinieri in South Central Iraq, around Nasiriyah. In March 2005 it was rumoured that Italian officials planned to begin the withdrawal of their forces in September, and this was confirmed by Prime Minister Berlusconi on the 9th of July. Premier Silvio Berlusconi's government is withdrawing its forces gradually, in groups of 300, having completed the first stage in September 2004, and commencing the second in January 2006 with the halving of the entire contingent expected by May. A full withdrawal is expected by the end of the year. The Italian forces have lost 27 soldiers in Iraq. 19 were hostile deaths: 2 in engagements and 17 in a late 2003 suicide bombing on the Italian HQ in Nasiriyah, 7 were accidents and one, ranking major general, was a controversial friendly fire incident. Italy has another 84 troops stationed on bases in the Persian Gulf. Recently, A-129 Mangusta attack helicopters and more Dardo tracked IFV are being sent to Iraq. In March 2004, four Italian private military contractors were taken hostage in Iraq. One was executed in April and the rest were released later in the month. Later in 2004 two aid workers were taken hostage and then released unharmed several weeks later. At least one reporter, Enzo Baldoni, was captured and executed by insurgents.
  • Template:Country - 1,500 Polish troops in South Central Iraq; The Polish forces command the Multi-National Division (South Central) which consists of forces from several other countries. The contingent will be cut to 900 by March 2006, and Polish force will shift toward the training of Iraqi security forces. On the 5th of January 2006, Radio Polonia reported that Polish troops had handed over control of the central Babil province to US troops and would be stationed at camps in the cities of Kut and Diwaniyah for the remainder of their mandate. In accordance with the decision of the Former Polish Minister of Defense Jerzy Szmajdzinski, the number of troops was reduced from 2,500 to 1,500 during the second half of 2005. Poland's former leftist government, which lost Sept. 25th 2005 elections, had planned to withdraw its 1,400 troops in January. The new defense minister, Radek Sikorski, visited Washington on the 3rd of December for talks on Poland's coalition plans, and Prime Minister Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz declared that he would decide after the Iraqi elections on Dec. 15th, whether to extend its troops' mandate beyond Dec. 31st. On Tuesday 22nd December, Prime Minister Marcinkiewicz announced to reporters following a government meeting, that he had asked President Lech Kaczynski to keep Polish troops in Iraq for another year, calling it "a very difficult decision." Kaczynski, who recently took office, has until the end of the month to decide. Poland has lost 17 soldiers in Iraq: 11 in engagements or ambushes and 6 in various accidents. In a statement released in July 2004, 'Al Zarqawi' released a statement threatening Japan, Poland and Bulgaria over their troop deployments. He demanded of the Polish government 'Pull your troops out of Iraq or you will hear the sounds of explosions that will hit your country.' Hours later Prime Minister Marek Belka denied, and deputy Defence Minister Janusz Zemke said pulling out would be a 'terrible mistake.' In addition, in June 2004, two Polish Blackwater USA private military contractors were ambushed and killed. One Polish and one Polish-Algerian journalist were ambushed and killed in May 2005.

100 - 1000 soldiers

  • Template:Country - 830 troops (half infantry, the rest includes: an intelligence team, military police, and de-miners) under Italian command (South East Iraq). One soldier died in a Kuwait City hospital on the 25th of March 2006, ten days after shooting himself in the head. In addition one Romanian private military contractor has been killed in Iraq. Three Romanian journalists were held captive by insurgents, but were released in May 2005
  • Template:Country - 400 troops including special forces, medics and engineers. In June 2004, 3 soldiers were wounded in an attack on a US base, and in November 2005, four were wounded in a bombing in Baqouba. 500 more forces were deployed in June 2005, for UNAMI including liaison officers.
  • Template:Country - 600 medics and engineers based in Samawah (Southern Iraq) on a humanitarian aid mission to rebuild local infrastructure, purify water and provide medical assistance. The reconstruction mission in Samawa limits the troops' activities to "non-combat zones". Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's Cabinet decided on Dec. 8 2005 to allow its 600 troops to stay for another year, despite a poll by the Asahi newspaper which found that 69% of respondents were against renewing the mandate, up from 55% in January. 3 Japanese hostages were captured in Iraq in early 2004 but were released unharmed a week later following non-compliance from Tokyo to the hostage takers' demands. Later, in a statement released in July 2004, 'Al Zarqawi' released a statement threatening Japan, Poland and Bulgaria over their troop deployments. He demanded the Japanese government to 'do what the Philippines have done' and withdraw its troops, and said that 'lines of cars laden with explosives are awaiting you' if his demands were not met. In May 2004, a Japanese freelance journalist and his nephew were ambushed and killed along with their translator. A Japanese private military contractor was ambushed and killed in Anbar province in May 2005. Mortars and rockets have been lobbed at the Japanese camp several times, causing no damage or injuries.
  • Template:Country - Independent contingent of 550 troops including infantry, medics and military police in South East Iraq near Basra at "Camp Danevang". Denmark has lost three soldiers in Iraq: one to friendly fire and the two others other to seperate IEDs, while 2 were wounded in August 2005. In addition, one Danish businessman was killed in April 2004 in an insurgent attack. Denmark has plans to leave Iraq in early to late 2006 at the expected request of the Iraqi government, although Denmark has not laid down any firm plans and may stay on if requested at that time. Iceland had 2 EOD experts, a medical advisor, and some transport experts assigned to the Danish unit immediately after the occupation began; they have since been withdrawn.
  • Template:Country - Independent contingent of 450 troops including an infantry company, a cavalry squadron and around 40 LAVs deployed on Feb 22nd 2005[11] (this contingent is designated the Al Muthanna Task Group). 500 more are stationed in Kuwait. AAP Newsfeed reported on Oct. 18, that Australia, in addition to its contingent of troops in-country, also had in Iraq an army security unit called SECDET, which is composed of 120 troops assigned to protect the Australian embassy. There is also an Australian Naval LAST with a 220-man crew patrolling the Persian Gulf just off the coast of Iraq. Prime minister John Howard plans for additional troops to go to Iraq. (see also: Australian contribution to the 2003 invasion of Iraq). In January 2005, 8 Australian soldiers were wounded, 2 seriously, in an ambush on the road to Baghdad International Airport. An Australian journalist was killed near the beginning of the war; one Australian private military contractor was ambushed and killed along with a British and American counterpart in mid-2005, while he travelled along the airport road. On November 7, 2005, an Australian soldier was killed in a traffic accident while training in Kuwait for Iraq duty. The independent Australian force in southern Iraq will remain in the country until at least late 2007[12]. An Australian journalist was killed by in a car bombing in March 2003, while another was killed five months later when an RPG struck the US military vehicle he was in.
  • Template:Country - 380 special forces troops under Polish command (Central South Iraq). New President Antonio Saca took office on June 1st 2004 and promised to renew his troop contingent's stay in Iraq beyond the expiry of their commitment in August, saying that a further decision would be made after the January 30th elections in Iraq. El Salvador has lost two soldiers in Iraq, one in a firefight and the other in an accident.
  • Template:Country - 150 troops. 100 soldiers were sent on the 29th of December 2004 to reinforce the 150 soldiers already in the country. They provide security for local Turkmen populations, religious sites and convoys.
  • Template:Country - 122 troops under Polish command (Central South Iraq). Latvia lost one soldier in Iraq in an insurgent attack.
  • Template:Country - 90 police trainers. (Reduced from 300 troops, a small detachment of MPs, and 3 civilians running a field hospital as of November 2003.) The Czech government announced the troops will be pulled out completely by the end of 2005. In addition, a Czech industrial contractor was killed in an accident in April 2004.
  • Template:Country - 120 troops under Polish command (Central South Iraq). The Lithuanian government has declared its intention to stay until the end of 2007.
  • Template:Country - 105 military engineers under Polish command (Central South Iraq). Slovakia lost three soldiers in Iraq (06/08/04) along with two Poles and a Latvian, when a mortar landed on a truck laden with munitions prepared for transportation to a detonation site. As of 2005, Slovakia has an 85 man engineering unit remaining in Iraq.

Fewer than 100 soldiers

  • Template:Country has deployed a unit of 46 soldiers (a mixture of logistic, medical and support soldiers) to support the effort in Iraq. On the 5th of December 2005, the Armenian government declared its intention to stay in Iraq for another year.
  • Template:Country deployed a 36 man force to destroy explosives and clear mines as of June 2005. 1 Bosnian truck driver employed by a firm serving coalition troops was killed in an ambush on his convoy.
  • Template:Country - 35 troops. Two soldiers were killed in Iraq in separate insurgent attacks.
  • Template:Country - 33 troops (possibly special forces). In late 2004 three Macedonian workers building barracks on American bases were executed after being captured by insurgents. As of October 1, 2005, Macedonia is planning to deploy 12 more soldiers.
  • Template:Country - 29 military engineers. One was killed (09/01/2005) along with eight Ukrainians when a pile of booby-trapped munitions was detonated by insurgents.
  • Template:Country has recently disclosed that they have had Canadian military personnel "embedded in American and coalition forces since the beginning of the conflict." Prime Minister Stephen Harper also stated that this is an unchanged state. In addition an undisclosed number of JTF2 operators were deployed to Iraq, working closely with Delta Force and the SAS. [13]. 5 Canadian private military contractors working for various US and UK 'security' firms were killed by insurgents between January 2004 and April 2003.

United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI)

  • Template:Country - 500 blue-helmets performing UN protection duties (separate to 400 Coalition troops).
  • Template:Country - 335 Fijian troops protecting UN buildings and staff in and around the Green Zone, ahead of the Iraqi elections in January. ABC News reported on the 20th of October 2004, that the contingent (trained, equipped and transported to Iraq by Australia) would be deployed the following month. 10 Fijian private military contractors were killed in Iraq including 4 who were shot and killed in Kirkuk on the 18th of April 2006, a Fijian soldier was also wounded in the attack. A Fijian soldier died of a suspected heart attack on 16 March, 2006.
  • Template:Country - 130 blue-helmets performing UN protection duties, separate from the 830 Romanian Coalition troops.

According to a BBC monitoring report, the Republic of Fiji Military Forces had abandoned plans to deploy a battalion to Iraq under the Coalition, for financial reasons.

Nations no longer participating in ground operations

  • Template:Flagicon Bulgaria - The last four Bulgarian soldiers were withdrawn from Iraq on January 16, 2006. They had remained there since December 22, 2005 to oversee the transport of equipment, according to Minister of Defense Veselin Bliznakov. Bulgaria had announced on November 3, 2004, that it would reduce the size of its contingent to 462 troops during the next scheduled unit rotation. This number dropped to 380 by late November 2005, and within a month the contingent had been almost completely sent home, via Kuwait. The Dnevnik Newspaper reported on the 8th of December 2005 that 120 soldiers would guard a prison housing rape and murder convicts in Ashraf, thus switching Bulgaria's role in Iraq to one of policing duties rather than military occupation. They started duty on Jan 1, 2006 and will be here for 4 months at the most. The original contingent of 380 mechanized infantry troops guarded municipal buildings and the town centre in Kerbala (South Central Iraq). In a statement released in July 2004, 'Al Zarqawi' released a statement threatening Japan, Poland and Bulgaria over their troop deployments. He demanded the 'crusader Bulgarian government' to withdraw its troops, and promised to 'turn Bulgaria into pools of blood' if his demands were not met. President Georgi Parvanov denied, saying 'we will not give in to the terrorists' pressure.' Bulgaria lost 13 soldiers in Iraq: one to friendly fire, 7 in attacks and 5 in accidents. In addition, two Bulgarian truck drivers working for companies serving coalition troops have been captured and killed in Iraq, with another ambushed and killed. 3 Bulgarian pilots were killed when their Mi-17 transport helicopter (transporting a team of private military contractors) was shot down in April 2005.
  • Template:Flagicon Ukraine - As of 22nd December 2005, all remaining Ukrainian troops crossed the Iraqi border into Kuwait and arrived home in the Ukraine by Friday 30th. This fulfills a long-planned withdrawal pledged by President Viktor Yushchenko who was sworn in on the 23rd of January 2005, and executes a ruling by the Ukrainian legislative body, the Verkhovna Rada, which passed a motion for the withdrawal of all troops. An independent contingent originally consisting of 1,650 mechanized infantry troops in Kut (South Central Iraq), had been slashed to around 900 between March 15th and May 15th 2004. This number was then reduced continuously until the 44 remaining troops were pulled out along with the last of the vehicles within the final days of 2005. Defense Minister Anatoly Gritsenko announced that 30 Army officers, ten specialists from the border service and ten representatives from the Interior Ministry would stay in Iraq, and that they would work at headquarter and command facilities. Ukraine lost a total of 18 soldiers in Iraq: 12 in attacks, 3 in accidents, 2 in suicides and 1 as a result of a heart attack, while 32 were wounded or injured. Early in 2004, three Ukrainian engineers were taken hostage in Iraq but were freed shortly after. One Ukrainian cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, was killed on April 8th 2003 (along with a Spaniard) when a U.S. tank fired at their hotel room.
  • Template:Flagicon Nicaragua - 230 troops left in February 2004, no replacement, attributed to financial reasons. While in Iraq, the troops were under Spanish command.
  • Template:Flagicon Spain - had 1,300 troops (mostly assigned to policing duties) in Najaf and commanded the troops of Honduras, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, and of Nicaragua. Newly elected Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero fulfilled one of his campaign pledges and declared the end of the mission on April 28 2004 with the withdrawal of the last 260 troops. While in Iraq, Spain lost 11 military personnel: ten killed in insurgent attacks and one in an accident. One Spanish reporter was killed (along with a German) when an Iraqi missile struck the U.S. unit they had been 'embedded' with on April 7th 2003. The next day, a Spanish camaraman was killed when a U.S. Abrams tank fired at their hotel room.
  • Template:Flagicon Honduras - 368 troops withdrawn by end of May along with Spain's contingent, citing that the troops were sent there for reconstruction, not combat. While in Iraq, the troops were under Spanish command (South East Iraq). One Honduran medic employed by DynCorp was killed in November 2004.
  • Template:Flagicon Norway - 140 of 150 troops (engineers and mine clearers) withdrawn on June 30, 2004 citing growing domestic opposition and the need for the troops elsewhere; approximately ten liaison troops remain. The Bondevik II administration insists the troops were never part of the invasion force, citing a UN humanitarian mandate. This does not seem to have come to the attention of the international community, as Al-Qaeda has included Norway in videotaped threats on at least two occasions, and US organizations have included Norway on their lists of participating nations. The actual status of Norwegian engineering and administrative personnel past and present are still a matter of domestic controversy, in part because troops serving in a war zone are entitled to better pay.
  • Template:Flagicon Dominican Republic - 302 troops withdrawn by end of May shortly after Spain and Honduras withdrew their contingents, citing growing domestic opposition. While in Iraq, the troops were under Spanish command (South East Iraq).
  • Template:Flagicon Philippines - 51 medics, engineers and sand soldiers withdrawn July 14 2004 in response to kidnapping of a truck driver. When the hostage takers' demands were met (Filipino troops out of Iraq), the hostage was released. While in Iraq, the troops were under Polish command (Central South Iraq) and during that time several Filipino soldiers were wounded in an insurgent attack but none died. In addition, 8 industrial contractors working for companies serving foreign troops were killed by insurgents in Iraq between April 2004 and November 2005.
  • Template:Flagicon Thailand - Withdrawal of last 100 troops from Thailand's 423-strong humanitarian contingent completed on 10th September 2004, in accordance with Thailand's mandate in Iraq which expired in September. Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra had previously announced early withdrawal if the situation became too dangerous. Thailand lost two soldiers in Iraq in an insurgent attack.
  • Template:Flagicon Hungary - Hungary's contingent of 300 transportation troops had begun arriving home in Budapest from Iraq on the 22nd of December 2004, reported AFP. All of Hungary's troops were reported by the Defence Ministry to have left Iraq by the end of that day. While in Iraq one Hungarian soldier was killed in an insurgent attack. One Hungarian contractor was also shot dead by American troops in a friendly-fire accident.
  • Template:Flagicon New Zealand - Two rotations of 61 military engineers, known as Task Force Rake, operated in Iraq from September 26, 2003 to September 25, 2004 [14] [15]. They were deployed to undertake humanitarian and reconstruction tasks consistent with UN Security Council Resolution 1483; they were not part of the invading force. While in Iraq the unit was under British command (South East Iraq) and was based in Basra. One New Zealand engineer was killed in Iraq during an insurgent attack.
  • Template:Flagicon Portugal - had 128 military policemen under Italian command (South East Iraq). Troops were withdrawn on Feb. 10th, 2005, two days ahead of schedule. In June 2004 one Portuguese technician was killed in Iraq in an insurgent attack.
  • Template:Flagicon Singapore - A total of 192 Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) personnel returned on 31 January 2004 after a two month deployment. A Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) amphibious transport dock conducted logistical tasks such as replenishing supplies for other naval vessels in the Persian Gulf, and conducted patrols to enforce a maritime presence. It also provided a platform for helicopter missions and maritime boarding operations missions by teams from other coalition countries when they inspected ships leaving Iraq. A (SAF) C-130 transport aircraft returned on 4 April 2004 after a two month deployment. During its deployment, the C-130 detachment conducted air support missions, including providing airlift and transportation of logistics supply to coalition forces. A SAF KC-135 tanker aircraft returned on 11 September 2004 after a three month deployment. During its deployment, the KC-135 provided air-to-air refuelling for coalition forces. A RSN amphibious transport dock with 180 personnel returned on 19 March 2005 after a three month deployment. Currently, there are no SAF personnel in or around Iraq.
  • Template:Flagicon Netherlands - Half a dozen liaison officers remain as of late 2005. An independent contingent of 1,345 troops (including 650 Marines, 3 or more Chinook helicopters, military police, a logistics team, a commando squad, and a field hospital) based in Samawah (Southern Iraq) left Iraq in June 2005. On June 1st 2004, the Dutch government renewed the troop stay through 2005. The Algemeen Dagblad reported on Oct. 21 2004, that the Netherlands would pull its troops out of Iraq in March 2005, at the end of the troop's mandate. Citing the Dutch Defense Minister, the Dutch Government had reportedly turned down an Iraqi Government request to extend the Dutch contingent's stay in-country. Netherlands lost two soldiers in separate insurgent attacks. In addition, one Dutch engineer was killed in March 2004 in an attack.
  • Template:Flagicon Moldova - 12 de-mining specialists and medics. The Washington Post, on 15 July 2004, reported that Moldova had quietly halved its contingent from 24 to 12. Withdrew remaining forces in February 2005.
  • Template:Flagicon Tonga - 45 Royal Marines. Arrived in Iraq at the beginning of July 2004 to augment the I Marine Expeditionary Force in the Al Anbar Province. Withdrew all forces in mid-December 2004.
  • Template:Flagicon Iceland - At the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Iceland deployed three de-mining experts along with the Danish contingent. By late 2004, they were withdrawn.

Private military contractors

In addition to regular troops there are roughly 20,000 private military contractors in Iraq. This is more than twice the number of boots on the ground than the second largest group of troops of the participating nations, United Kingdom. These contractors also differ from regular troops as they are outside a Uniform Code of Military Justice, and have little or no legal accountability, making them especially feared and unpopular with the Iraqi population. However under the Geneva Conventions private contractors, along with everyone in Iraq, may be tried by fair and impartial military tribunals set up by one of the Occupying Powers. There have been unconfirmed reports of more than 40,000 private military contractors operating in Iraq in December 2004.

External links


de:Koalition der Willigen es:Coalición de la voluntad nl:Coalition of the Willing ja:有志連合 no:Koalisasjonen av de Villige sl:Koalicija voljnih fi:Halukkaiden koalitio sv:De villigas koalition