List of fruits

From Free net encyclopedia

Here are lists of all the fruits considered edible in some cuisine. Note that many true fruits are considered to be vegetables in the culinary sense (for example, the tomato), and hence do not appear in this article. There exist also many fruits that are edible but for various reasons have not become popular.

Contents

Temperate fruits

Fruits of temperate climates are almost universally borne on trees or woody shrubs or lianas. They will not grow adequately in the tropics, as they need a period of cold (a chilling requirement) each year before they will flower. The apple, pear, cherry, and plum are the most widely grown and eaten, owing to their adaptability. Many other fruits are important regionally but do not figure prominently in commerce. Many sorts of small fruit on this list are gathered from the wild, just as they were in Neolithic times.

Rosaceae family

The Family Rosaceae dominates the temperate fruits, both in numbers and in importance. The pome fruits, stone fruits and brambles are fruits of plants in Rosaceae.

The pome fruits:

Image:Apples.jpg

The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus:

  • Apricot (Prunus armeniaca or Armeniaca vulgaris)
  • Cherry, sweet, sour, and wild species (Prunus avium, P. cerasus, and others)
  • Plum, of which there are several domestic and wild species; dried plums are called prunes
  • Peach (of the normal and white variety) and its variant the nectarine (Prunus persica)
  • Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)
  • Hybrids of the preceding species, such as the pluot, aprium and peacotum

Berries

In non-technical usage, berry means any small fruit that can be eaten whole and lacks objectionable seeds. The bramble fruits, compound fruits of genus Rubus (blackberries), are some of the most popular pseudo-berries:

Image:Raspberries (Rubus Idaeus).jpg

The true berries are dominated by the family Ericaceae, many of which are hardy in the subarctic:

Other berries not in the Rosaceae or Ericaceae:

Fruits of Asian origin

Some fruits native to Asia that were not common elsewhere until the 20th century:

Fruits of American origin

Some other fruits native to North America that are eaten in a small way:

Cacti and other succulents

Several cacti yield edible fruits, which are important traditional foods for some Native American peoples:

Podocarps

Prodocarps are conifers in the family Podocarpaceae. The seed cones are highly modified and, in some, the seed is surrounded by fleshy scale tissue, resembling a drupe. These berry-like cone scales are eaten by birds which then disperse the seeds in their droppings and the cones can be eaten in many species. Prodocarps are either half-hardy or frost tender, depending on species. Many genera are similar in that they have edible fruits and often don't have a common name.

Herbaceous annuals fruits

Melons and other members of Cucurbitaceae or Solanaceae family

Some exceptions to the statement that temperate fruits grow on woody perennials are:

Image:Watermelon.jpg

Accessory fruits

The accessory fruits, seed organs which are not botanically berries at all::

Vegetables

A few vegetables are sometimes colloquially, but incorrectly, termed as "fruit" in the kitchen:

Mediterranean and subtropical fruits

Fruits in this category are not hardy to extreme cold, as the preceding temperate fruits are, yet tolerate some frost and may have a modest chilling requirement. Notable among these are natives of the Mediterranean:

Image:Close up grapes.jpg


In the important genus Citrus (Rutaceae), some members are tropical, tolerating no frost. All common species of commerce are somewhat hardy:

Image:Lemon.jpg


Other subtropical fruits:

Tropical fruits

Tropical fruit grow on plants of all habitats. The only characteristic that they share is an intolerance of frost.

Image:Carica papaya - papaya - var-tropical dwarf papaya - desc-fruit.jpg

Inedible fruit

Unsorted

See also

External links

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