Theodore Roosevelt

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Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. (October 27 1858January 6 1919), also known as T.R. or Teddy, was the 26th President of the United States (1901–1909). He was the 25th Vice President before becoming President upon the assassination of President William McKinley. On taking the executive oath at the age of 42, Roosevelt became the youngest President in U.S. history. Within the Republican Party he was a reformer who sought to bring his party's conservative ideals into the 20th century. He broke with his friend and appointed successor William Howard Taft and ran as a third-party candidate in 1912 on the Progressive Party ticket.

Before 1901, Roosevelt served as a New York State assemblyman, Police Commissioner of New York City, U.S. Civil Service Commissioner, and Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Navy. As a colonel, he commanded his famous all-volunteer First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, the "Rough Riders", during the Spanish-American War. He also served a successful term as Governor of New York. He was a widely respected historian, naturalist and explorer of the Amazon Basin; his 35 books, listed online [1], include works on outdoor life, natural history, U.S. Western and political history, an autobiography and a host of other topics. In his lifetime, he was considered a foremost authority on North American big game animals and Eastern birds. "Uncle Ted" gave away his niece Eleanor Roosevelt to his fifth cousin, Franklin D. Roosevelt at their wedding in New York City in March 1905. His presence upstaged the bride and the groom, who were left alone after the ceremony when the guests followed the president into another room. The New York Times didn't even identify the bride by name.

Roosevelt took particular pride in leading what he called the "strenuous life". He inspired and led the United States to understand the strategic significance of the Panama Canal, which led to its construction from 1904 to its completion in 1914, after he left office. He felt that the Canal's completion was his most important and historically significant international achievement. He was the first American to be awarded the Nobel Prize, winning its Peace Prize in 1906 for his successful mediation of the Russo-Japanese War. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in January 2001 after almost a century of controversy.


Childhood and education

Roosevelt was born Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., at 28 East 20th Street in the modern-day Gramercy section of New York City on October 27 1858, the second of four children of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (1831–1878) and Martha Bulloch (1834–1884). Theodore was younger than his sister Anna, nicknamed "Bamie" as a child and "Bye," as an adult for being always on the go. Theodore was older than his brother Elliott (the father of Eleanor Roosevelt), and his sister Corinne. The Roosevelts had been in New York since the mid 17th century and had grown with the emerging New York commerce class after the American Revolution. Until the birth, over slavery, of the Republican Party, just before the Civil War, the family was strongly Democratic in its political outlook. By the 18th Century, the family had grown in wealth, power and influence from the profits of several businesses including hardware and plate-glass importing. Theodore's father, known in the family as "Thee," was a New York City philanthropist, merchant, and partner in the family glass-importing firm Roosevelt and Son. Martha Bulloch was a Southern belle from a slave-owning family in Georgia and had Confederate sympathies. On his mother's side, Theodore's uncle, Admiral James Dunwoody Bulloch, was a famous Confederate naval officer. During the Civil War, Martha supported her southern relatives' struggles and quietly mailed packages south.

Sickly and asthmatic as a youngster, Roosevelt had to sleep propped up in bed or slouching in a chair during much of his early childhood, and had frequent ailments. Despite his illnesses, he was a hyperactive and often mischievous young man. His lifelong interest in zoology was formed at age seven upon seeing a dead seal at a local market. After obtaining the seal's head, the young Roosevelt and two of his cousins formed what they called the "Roosevelt Museum of Natural History". Learning the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with many animals that he caught, studied, and prepared for display. At age nine, he codified his observation of insects with a paper titled "The Natural History of Insects." <ref name="environment">"TR's Legacy - The Environment". Retrieved March 6, 2006.</ref>

To combat his poor physical condition, his father compelled the young Roosevelt to take up exercise. To deal with bullies, Roosevelt started boxing lessons. <ref>Thayer, William Roscoe (1919). Theodore Roosevelt: An Intimate Biography, Chapter I, p. 20.</ref>

Two trips abroad had a permanent impact: family tours of Europe in 1869 and 1870, and of the Middle East 1872 to 1873.

The pater familias of the Roosevelts, Theodore Sr., who was also known to friends and family as "Great Heart," was more than an ordinary father to Roosevelt. He had a tremendous influence on young Theodore and was a life-long source of inspiration. Of him Roosevelt would write, "My father, Theodore Roosevelt, was the best man I ever knew. He combined strength and courage with gentleness, tenderness, and great unselfishness. He would not tolerate in us children selfishness or cruelty, idleness, cowardice, or untruthfulness." <ref>Roosevelt, Theodore (1913). Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography, Chapter I, p. 13. Macmillan. ISBN 1-58734-045-3.</ref> Some Roosevelt biographers have argued that the senior Roosevelt's influence served as a check on negative aspects of his son's adult personality. From childhood on, Roosevelt wanted to live up to the ideals instilled in him by his father. Roosevelt's sister later wrote, "He told me frequently that he never took any serious step or made any vital decision for his country without thinking first what position his father would have taken."<ref>"The Film & More: Program Transcript Part One". Retrieved March 9, 2006.</ref>

Young Teddie, as he was nicknamed as a child, was mostly homeschooled by tutors. He matriculated at Harvard College in 1876. His father's death in 1878 was a tremendous blow, but Roosevelt redoubled his activities. He did well in science, philosophy and rhetoric courses but fared poorly in classical languages, which is noteworthy because he was in the last Roosevelt generation to be fluent in Dutch. He studied biology with great interest, and indeed was already an accomplished naturalist and published ornithologist. He had a photographic memory and developed a life-long habit of devouring books, memorizing every detail. He was an unusually eloquent conversationalist who, throughout his life, sought out the company of the smartest men and women. He could multitask in extraordinary fashion, dictating letters to one secretary and memoranda to another, while browsing through a new book.

While at Harvard, Roosevelt was active in numerous clubs and edited a student magazine. He was runner-up in the Harvard boxing championship, losing to C.S. Hanks. The sportsmanship Roosevelt showed in that fight was long remembered. <ref>Thayer, Chapter I, pp. 30, 36.</ref>

He graduated Phi Beta Kappa and magna cum laude (22nd of 177) from Harvard in 1880 <ref>Thayer, Chapter I, p. 37.</ref>, and entered Columbia Law School. Finding law boring, however, he researched and wrote his first major book, "The Naval War of 1812", in 1882, which still is considered the only comprehensive history on the subject. <ref>"The Naval War of 1812 by Theodore Roosevelt". </ref> Presented with an opportunity to run for New York Assemblyman in 1881, he dropped out of law school to pursue his new goal of entering public life. <ref> Brands, pp 123-29</ref>

Early life

Early Public Life

Image:TR NY State Assemblyman 1883.jpg Roosevelt was a Republican activist during his years in the Assembly, writing more bills than any other New York state legislator. Already a major player in state politics, he attended the Republican National Convention in 1884, and fought alongside the Mugwump reformers who opposed the Stalwarts; they lost to the conservative faction that nominated James G. Blaine. Refusing to join other Mugwumps in supporting Grover Cleveland, the Democratic nominee, he stayed loyal to the party and supported Blaine.<ref>Brands pp 175-79</ref>

Deaths of first wife and mother

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Theodore's first wife, Alice, and his mother, Martha, both died on Valentine's Day 1884 in the same house, only two days after his wife gave birth to their only daughter, Alice. <ref>Thayer, Chapter II, p. 29.</ref> Roosevelt was beyond consolation. After drawing a large "X" in his diary (right photo), he wrote, "The light has gone out of my life."

Although he noted her loss in his diary and made several references to her in the subsequent months, from the next year on Roosevelt refused to speak his first wife's name again (even omitting her name from his autobiography) and did not allow others to speak of her in his presence.

Later that year, Roosevelt left the General Assembly and his infant daughter Alice, whom he had left in the long-term care of his older sister, Bamie. He moved to his ranch in the Badlands of the Dakota Territory to live a more simple life as a rancher and lawman.

This practice put an early strain on his relationship with his daughter who was given his late wife's name. However, as she (Alice) grew into adulthood, and she better understood her father's deep moral convictions, the bond between Theodore and his daughter became strong. Alice would continue to support her father's ideas even after his death in 1919. She worked behind the scenes to help kill Wilson's League of Nations (something Theodore very much opposed) and later defended her father's character against the democratic FDR administration. She resided in the capitol city and due to her social parties and connections became known as "the other Washington monument." Alice died in 1980 at the age of 96.

Life in the Badlands, return and marriage to Edith Carow

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Living near the boomtown of Medora, North Dakota, Roosevelt learned to ride and rope, occasionally getting involved in fistfights, and spent his time in the rough-and-tumble world of the final days of the American Old West. On one occasion, as a Deputy Sheriff, he hunted down three outlaws taking a stolen boat down the Little Missouri River, successfully taking them back overland for trial. <ref>Thayer, Chapter IV, p. 7.</ref>

After the 1886-1887 winter wiped out his herd of cattle and his $60,000 investment (together with those of his competitors), he returned to the East, where in 1885, he had purchased Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay, New York. It would be his home and estate until his death. Roosevelt ran as the Republican candidate for mayor of New York City in 1886, coming in a distant third. Following the election he went to London, there marrying his childhood sweetheart, Edith Kermit Carow. <ref>Thayer, Chapter V, pp. 4, 6.</ref> They honeymooned in Europe, and Roosevelt took the time to climb Mont Blanc, leading only the third expedition of record to reach the summit.

Roosevelt is the only President to have become a widower and remarry before becoming President.

In the 1880s, he gained recognition as a serious historian. His The Naval War of 1812 (1882) was the standard history for two generations, but his hasty biographies of Thomas Hart Benton (1887) and Gouverneur Morris (1888) were potboilers. His major achievement was a four-volume history of the frontier, The Winning of the West (1889-1896), which had a notable impact on historiography as it presented a highly original version of the frontier thesis originally developed in 1893 by his friend Frederick Jackson Turner. His many articles in upscale magazines provided a much-needed income, as well as cementing a reputation as a major national intellectual. He was later chosen president of the American Historical Association.

Return to public life

In the 1888 presidential election, Roosevelt campaigned for Benjamin Harrison in the Midwest. President Harrison appointed Roosevelt to the United States Civil Service Commission where he served until 1895. <ref>Thayer, Chapter VI, pp. 1–2.</ref> In his term, he vigorously fought the spoilsmen and demanded the enforcement of civil service laws. <ref>Thayer, Chapter VI, p. 10.</ref> In spite of Roosevelt's support for Harrison's reelection bid in the presidential election of 1892, the eventual winner, Grover Cleveland (a Democrat), reappointed him to the same post. <ref>Thayer, Chapter VI, p. 17.</ref> Image:Teddy Roosevelt portrait.jpg In 1895, he became president of the New York Board of Police Commissioners. During the two years that he held this post, Roosevelt radically changed the way a police department was run. He required his officers to be registered with the Board and to pass a physical fitness test. He also saw that telephones were installed in station houses. Always an energetic man, he made a habit of walking officers' beats late at night and early in the morning to make sure that they were on duty. He also engaged a pistol expert to teach officers how to shoot their firearms. While serving on the Board, he also opened up job opportunities in the department to women and Jews for the first time. <ref>Thayer, Chapter VI, pp. 18–24.</ref>

Assistant Secretary of the Navy

Roosevelt, the author of the well-received "History of the Naval War of 1812," had always been fascinated by navies and their history. Urged by Roosevelt's close friend, Congressman Henry Cabot Lodge, President William McKinley appointed a delighted Roosevelt to the post of Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1897. Roosevelt had grown up fascinated with stories of naval battles by his mother and his Confederate Bulloch uncles in Liverpool. Roosevelt had persistently encouraged his uncle James Bulloch to tell his unique story of Confederate operations in Britain during the Civil War and the secret fitting-out of such ships as the CSS Alabama on which Bulloch's brother Irvine had served. His uncle "Jimmie", in turn, had helped him develop his ideas that led to his naval history. In that book, Roosevelt explained how criminal neglect of Naval issues and apathy toward British seapower had almost led to the destruction of the new country. It was only the nautical skills of the commanders and the training and ship handling skills of the crews that had saved the Navy and the Country. The overwhelming seapower of Britain had shaped every aspect of the war and made the events on land seem almost secondary to TR until the Battle of New Orleans. The "1812" book was but the first link in the chain of TR's developing views of the importance of a strong Navy to the security of the United States. Concurrently with Roosevelt's arrival in Washington, a contemporary and friend, Alfred Thayer Mahan, who had met Roosevelt in 1887 had organized his earlier Naval War College lectures into his seminal book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783. Roosevelt read it in a single weekend during the summer of 1890 and immediately appreciated its import. But the book, while revolutionary to many Americans, simply reinforced Roosevelt's own understanding of the role that Navies (in 1800 or in 1900) would play on the world stage and that only a dramatic expansion of the Navy into a service with a global reach would put the United States on par with the growing naval might of both European nations and Japan. When asked to speak to the Naval War College, the scope and force of Roosevelt arguments stunned both the Secretary of the Navy as well as the President, as they had not been approved by either man. But so persuasive was Roosevelt's speech, that neither man publicly repudiated him. Within days of becoming assistant secretary, Roosevelt was pushing for the modernization of the Navy and the reorganization of both the Department and its officer corps. He also fought for an increase in ship-building capability, warning that building modern steel ships would take years instead of the mere weeks of construction in the age of sail. He would be instrumental in consciously preparing the Navy for what he saw as an unavoidable conflict with Spain. Events would prove him right. During the Spanish-American War, the US Navy would scour the globe in search of ships to support world-wide operations. <ref>Thayer, chapter VII, pp. 5–10.</ref> While some historians have painted Roosevelt as nothing more than a knee-jerk jingo and imperialist, almost blindly pushing for war and intervention, both TR's vision and his politics were grounded in both personal experience as well as solid scholarship. <ref>"The Naval War of 1812 by Theodore Roosevelt". </ref> Image:TR LtCol 1898.jpg

At war in Cuba

Upon the declaration of war in 1898 that would be known as the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt resigned from the Navy Department and, with the aid of U.S. Army Colonel Leonard Wood, organized the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment out of a diverse crew that ranged from cowboys from the Western territories to Ivy League chums from New York. The newspapers called them the "Rough Riders." Originally Roosevelt held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and served under Colonel Wood, but after Wood was promoted to Brigadier General of Volunteer Forces, Roosevelt was promoted to Colonel and given command of the Regiment. Under his leadership, the Rough Riders became famous for their dual charges up Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill in July 1898, the battle being named after the latter hill. <ref>Thayer, Chapter VII, pp. 20–26.</ref> Roosevelt was eventually awarded the Medal of Honor in 2001 for his actions. Image:TR San Juan Hill 1898.jpg Upon his return from Cuba, Roosevelt re-entered New York State politics and was elected governor of New York in 1898. <ref>Thayer, Chapter VIII, p. 7.</ref> He made such a concerted effort to root out corruption and "machine politics" that Republican boss Thomas Collier Platt forced him on McKinley as a running mate in the 1900 election to simplify their control of the state. <ref>Thayer, Chapter VIII, p. 19.</ref>

After returning from Cuba Roosevelt re-entered New York State politics and was elected governor in 1898. Image:TR-Cowboy.JPG

Vice Presidency

McKinley and Roosevelt won the presidential election of 1900, defeating William Jennings Bryan and Adlai E. Stevenson Sr.. Roosevelt found the vice-presidency unfulfilling, and thinking that he had little future in politics, considered returning to law school after leaving office. <ref>Thayer, Chapter VIII, pp. 27–28.</ref> On September 2, 1901, Roosevelt first uttered a sentence that would become strongly associated with his presidency, urging Americans to "speak softly and carry a big stick" during a speech at the Minnesota State Fair.


Presidency 1901-1909

Template:Main President McKinley was shot by an anarchist on September 6, 1901, and died on September 14, vaulting Roosevelt into the presidency. Roosevelt took the oath of office on September 14 in the Ansley Wilcox House at Buffalo, New York. He was the youngest president to assume office, and promised to continue McKinley's cabinet and his basic policies. Roosevelt did so, but after reelection in 1904 moved to the political left, stretching his ties to the GOP's conservative leaders.

Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902

Template:Main A national emergency was averted in 1902 when Roosevelt found a compromise to the anthracite coal strike by the United Mine Workers of America that threatened the heating supplies of most homes. Workers in eastern Pennsylvania were on strike for 163 days before it ended, and they were granted a 10% pay increase and a 9-hour day (from the previous 10 hours).

Square Deal

Roosevelt promised to continue McKinley's program, and at first he worked closely with McKinley's men, eventually winning them to his team or breaking with them. His 20,000-word address to the Congress in December 1901, asked Congress to curb the power of trusts "within reasonable limits." They did not act but Roosevelt did, issuing 44 lawsuits against major corporations; he was called the "trust-buster."

Mark Hanna was the rival power in the Republican party, but Roosevelt artfully pushed him aside and lined up enough delegates to assure himself of the 1904 nomination. Hanna died, and Roosevelt had an easy renomination and reelection in 1904. He won 336 of 476 Electoral votes, and 56.4% of the total popular vote.


Building on McKinley's effective use of the press, Roosevelt made the White House the center of news every day, providing interviews and photo opportunities. His children were almost as popular as he was, and their pranks and hijinks in the White House made headlines. His daughter, Alice Lee Roosevelt, became the toast of Washington.

Regulation of industry

Roosevelt firmly believed, "The Government must in increasing degree supervise and regulate the workings of the railways engaged in interstate commerce." Inaction was a danger, he argued, "Such increased supervision is the only alternative to an increase of the present evils on the one hand or a still more radical policy on the other." (Annual Message Dec 1904) His biggest success was passage of the Hepburn Act of 1906 giving the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates and stopped free passes given to friends of the railroad. Everyone at the time assumed railroads would always be a vast and powerful force; no one dreamed they would be challenged by trucks and automobiles, and struggle to survive under the provisions of the Hepburn Act designed to help merchants and consumers.

In response to public clamor, Roosevelt pushed Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, as well as the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. The laws helped the large meatpacking and food processing firms shut down small, unsanitary competitors.


Roosevelt was a prominent conservationist, putting the issue high on the national agenda. He worked with all the major figures of the movement, especially his chief advisor on the matter Gifford Pinchot. Roosevelt set aside more land for national parks and nature preserves than all of his predecessors combined. The Theodore Roosevelt National Park in the Badlands commemorates his conservationist philosophy. In 1907, Roosevelt designated 16 million acres (65,000 km²) of new national forests just minutes before a deadline. In May 1908, he sponsored the Conference of Governors held in the White House, with a focus on natural resources and their most efficient use. Roosevelt delivered the opening address: "Conservation as a National Duty." In 1903 Roosevelt toured the Yosemite Valley with John Muir, who had a very different view of conservation, and tried to minimize commercial use of water resources and forests.

Foreign Policy

Roosevelt's administration was marked by an active approach to foreign policy. Roosevelt saw it as the duty of more developed ("civilized") nations to help the underdeveloped ("uncivilized") world move forward. In Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Canal Zone he used the Army's medical service, under Walter Reed and William C. Gorgas to eliminate the yellow fever menace and install a new regime of public health. He used the army as well to build up the infrastructure of the new possessions, building railways, telegraph and telephone lines, and upgrading roads and port facilities.

Image:Panam2.JPG Roosevelt dramatically increased the size of the navy, forming the Great White Fleet, which toured the world in 1907. Roosevelt also added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States could intervene in Caribbean affairs when corruption of governments made it necessary. His most famous foreign policy initiative, following the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, was the construction of the Panama Canal, which upon its completion shortened the route of freighters between San Francisco and New York by 8,000 miles. Roosevelt gained international praise for helping negotiate the end of the Russo-Japanese War, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Roosevelt later arbitrated a dispute between France and Germany over the division of Morocco. Some historians have argued these latter two actions helped in a small way to avert a world war. <ref>The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia (2005). "Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)". Retrieved March 6, 2006.</ref>

Life in the White House

Roosevelt relished the Presidency and seemed to be everywhere at once. He took Cabinet members and friends on long, fast-paced hikes, boxed in the state rooms of the White House, romped with his children, and read voraciously. <ref name="lion">Hanson, David C. (2005). "Theodore Roosevelt: Lion in the White House". Retrieved March 6, 2006.</ref> In 1908, he was permanently blinded in one eye during one of his boxing bouts, but this injury was kept from the public at the time. <ref>Smith, Ira R. T.; Morris, Joe Alex (1949). "Dear Mr. President": The Story of Fifty Years in the White House Mail Room, p. 52. Julian Messner.</ref>

Presidential firsts

Roosevelt's presidency saw a number of firsts. In the sphere of race relations, Booker T. Washington became the first Black man to dine at the White House in 1901. Oscar S. Straus became the first Jew appointed as a Cabinet Secretary, under Roosevelt. Roosevelt was the first President to wear a necktie for his official portrait, a tradition which all of his successors followed. Although four Vice Presidents before Roosevelt had ascended to the presidency upon the death of their predecessor, in 1904, Roosevelt became the first to be elected in his own right or even win his party’s nomination for reelection. After Roosevelt, three more Vice Presidents who ascended to the Presidency would be elected to terms of their own (Calvin Coolidge, Harry Truman, and Lyndon Johnson).

In 1906, Roosevelt became the first President and first American to be awarded a Nobel Prize, when he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work towards ending the Russo-Japanese War. That same year, he made the first official trip by a President outside the United States, visiting Panama to inspect the construction progress of the Panama Canal on November 9.

Image:Roosevelt safari elephant.jpg


African Safari

In March 1910 shortly after the end of his second term (but only full term) as President, Roosevelt left New York for a post-presidency safari in Africa. The trip was sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and the National Geographic Society and received worldwide media attention. Despite his commitment to conservation, his party, which included scientists from the Smithsonian, killed or trapped over 11,397 animals, from insects and moles to hippos and elephants. 512 of the animals were big game animals, of which 262 were consumed by the expedition. This including six white rhinos. Tons of salted animals and their skins were shipped to Washington and it took years to mount them, so large was the number. The Smithsonian was able to share many duplicate animals with other museums. Of the large number of animals taken, TR said, "I can be condemned only if the existence of the National Museum, the American Museum of Natural History, and all similar zoological institutions are to be condemned." <ref> O'Toole, Patricia (2005) When Trumpets Call, p. 67, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-684-86477-0 </ref>

Growing split inside Republican Party


Roosevelt certified William Howard Taft to be a genuine "progressive" in 1908, when Roosevelt pushed through the nomination of his Secretary of War for the Presidency. Taft easily defeated three-time candidate William Jennings Bryan. Taft had a different progressivism, one that stressed the rule of law and preferred judges rather than administrators or politicians make the basic decisions about fairness. Taft usually proved a less adroit politician than Roosevelt, and lacked the energy and personal magnetism, not to mention the publicity devices, the dedicated supporters, and the broad base of public support that made Roosevelt so formidable. When Roosevelt realized that lowering the tariff would risk severe tensions inside the GOP, pitting producers (manufacturers and farmers) against merchants and consumers, he stopped talking about the issue. Taft ignored the risks and tackled the tariff boldly, on the one hand encouraging reformers to fight for lower rates, then cutting deals with conservative leaders that kept overall rates high. The resulting Payne-Aldrich tariff of 1909 was too high for most reformers, but instead of blaming this on Senator Nelson Aldrich and big business, Taft took credit, calling it the best tariff ever. Again he had managed to alienate all sides. While the crisis was building inside the GOP, Roosevelt was touring Africa and Europe, so as to allow Taft to be his own man. <ref>Thayer, Chapter XXI, p. 10.</ref>

Unlike Roosevelt, Taft never attacked business or businessmen in his rhetoric. However, he was attentive to the law, so he launched 90 antitrust suits, including one against the largest corporation, U.S. Steel, for an acquisition that Roosevelt had personally approved. The upshot was that Taft lost the support of antitrust reformers (who disliked his conservative rhetoric), of big business (which disliked his actions), and of Roosevelt, who felt humiliated by his protégé. The left wing of the GOP began agitating against Taft. Senator Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin created the National Progressive Republican League to defeat the power of political bossism at the state level, and to replace Taft at the national level. More trouble came when Taft fired Gifford Pinchot, a leading conservationist and close ally of Roosevelt. Pinchot alleged that Taft's Secretary of Interior Richard Ballinger was in league with big timber interests. Conservationists sided with Pinchot, as Taft alienated yet another vocal constituency.

Roosevelt, back from Europe, unexpectedly launched an attack on the federal courts, which deeply upset Taft. Not only had Roosevelt alienated big business, he was also attacking both the judiciary and the deep faith Republicans had in their judges (most of whom had been appointed by McKinley, Roosevelt or Taft.) In the 1910 Congressional elections, Democrats swept to power and Taft's reelection in 1912 was increasingly in doubt. In 1911 Taft responded with a vigorous stumping tour that allowed him to sign up most of the party leaders long before Roosevelt announced. Taft thereby demonstrated that he was a better political operator than Roosevelt.

Progressive Party candidate in 1912

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Late in 1911, Roosevelt finally broke with Taft and LaFollette and announced himself as a candidate for the Republican nomination. Roosevelt had delayed too long, and Taft had already won the support of most party leaders in the country. Most of LaFollette's supporters went over to Roosevelt, leaving the Wisconsin Senator embittered. Roosevelt, stepping up his attack on judges, carried 9 of the states with preferential primaries, LaFollette took two, and Taft only one. Most professional Republican politicians were supporting Taft, and they proved difficult to upset in non-primary states. In a decisive move, Taft's people purchased support of the corrupt politicians who represented the shadow Republican party in southern states. (These states always voted Democratic in presidential elections, but their delegates had over 300 votes at the Republican National convention.) Taft's managers, led by Elihu Root--once Roosevelt's top ally--beat back challenges to their southern delegations; Taft now had more delegates than Roosevelt. Roosevelt's people had made similar purchases in the South in 1904, but this time the Rough Rider called foul. Not since 1872 had there been a major schism in the Republican party; Roosevelt himself, in the 1884, had refused to bolt the ticket even though he distrusted candidate James G. Blaine. Now, with the Democrats holding about 45% of the national vote, any schism would be fatal. Roosevelt's only hope at the convention was to form a "stop-Taft" alliance with LaFollette, but LaFollette hated Roosevelt too much to allow that. Unable to tolerate the personal humiliation he suffered at the hands of Taft and the Old Guard, and refusing to entertain the possibility of a compromise candidate, Roosevelt struck back hard. Outvoted, Roosevelt pulled his delegates off the convention floor and decided to form a third party.

Roosevelt, along with key allies such as Pinchot and Albert Beveridge created the Progressive Party structuring it as a permanent organization that would field complete tickets at the presidential and state level. It was popularly known as the "Bull Moose Party," which got its name after Roosevelt told reporters, "I'm as tough as a bull moose." At his Chicago convention Roosevelt cried out, "We stand at Armageddon and we battle for the Lord." The crusading rhetoric resonated well with the delegates, many of them long-time reformers, crusaders, activists and opponents of politics as usual. Included in the ranks were Jane Addams and many other feminists and peace activists. The platform echoed Roosevelt's 1907-08 proposals, calling for vigorous government intervention to protect the people from the selfish interests. <ref>Thayer, Chapter XXII, pp. 25–31.</ref>

The great majority of Republican governors, congressmen, editors and local leaders refused to join the new party, even if they had supported Roosevelt before. Only five of the 15 most prominent progressive Republicans in the Senate endorsed the new party; three came out for Wilson. Many of Roosevelt's closest political allies supported Taft, including his son-in-law, Nicholas Longworth. Roosevelt's daughter Alice Roosevelt Longworth stuck with her father, causing a permanent chill in her marriage. For men like Longworth, expecting a future in politics, bolting the Republican party ticket was simply too radical a step; for others, it was safer to go with Woodrow Wilson, and quite a few supporters of progressivism had doubts about the reliability of Roosevelt's beliefs.

Historians speculate that if The Bull Moose had only run a presidential ticket, it might have attracted many more Republicans willing to split their ballot. But the progressive movement was strongest at the state level, and, therefore, the new party had to field candidates for governor and state legislature. In Pittsburgh, the local Republican boss, at odds with state party leaders, joined Roosevelt's cause. In California, Governor Hiram Johnson and the Bull Moosers took control of the regular Republicans party; Taft was not even listed on the California ballot. Johnson became Roosevelt's running-mate. In most states, there were full Republican and Progressive tickets in the field, thus splitting the Republican vote. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously on the ("Bull Moose") ticket. While campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, he was shot by saloonkeeper John Schrank in a failed assassination attempt on October 14, 1912. With the bullet lodged in his chest, Roosevelt delivered his scheduled speech. He was not seriously wounded, although his doctors thought it too dangerous to attempt to remove the bullet, and he carried it with him until he died.

The central problem faced by Progressive Party was that the Democrats were more united and optimistic than they had been in decades. The Bull Moosers fancied they had a chance to elect Roosevelt by drawing out progressive elements from both the Republican and Democratic parties. That dream evaporated in July, when the Democrats unexpectedly rejected party hacks and instead nominated their most articulate and prominent progressive, Woodrow Wilson. As a leading educator and political scientist, he qualified as the ideal "expert" to handle affairs of state. At least half the nation's independent progressives flocked to Wilson's camp, both because of Wilson's policies and the expectation of victory. This left the Bull Moose party high and dry. Roosevelt haters, such as LaFollette, also voted for Wilson instead of wasting their vote on Taft who could never win. <ref name="thayer_1912">Thayer, Chapter XXII, pp. 36–41.</ref> The most serious problem faced by Roosevelt's third party was money. The business interests who usually funded Republican campaigns distrusted Roosevelt and either sat the election out, or supported Taft. Lacking a strong party press, the Bull Moosers had to spend most of their money on publicity.

Roosevelt nonetheless conducted a vigorous national campaign, denouncing the way the Republican nomination had been "stolen." He bundled together his reforms under the rubric of "The New Nationalism" and stumped the country for a strong federal role in regulating the economy, and, especially, watching and chastising bad corporations and overruling federal and state judges who made unprogressive decisions. Wilson called for "The New Freedom", which emphasized individualism rather than the powerful national government that Roosevelt was promoting. Taft, knowing he had no chance to win, campaigned quietly, emphasizing the superior role of judges over the demagogy of elected officials. The departure of the more extreme progressives left the conservatives even more firmly in control of the GOP, and many of the Old Guard leaders even distrusted Taft as a bit too progressive for their taste, especially on matters of antitrust and tariffs. Much of the Republican effort was designed to discredit Roosevelt as a dangerous radical, but people knew Roosevelt too well to buy that argument. The result was the weakest Republican effort in history. <ref name="thayer_1912"/>

Roosevelt failed to move the political system in his direction. He did win 4.1 million votes (27%), compared to Taft's 3.5 million (23%). However, Wilson's 6.3 million votes (42%) were enough to garner 435 electoral votes. Roosevelt had only 88 electoral votes; Pennsylvania was his only Eastern state; in the Midwest he carried Michigan, Minnesota and South Dakota; in the West, California and Washington; in the South, nothing. The Democrats gained ten seats in the Senate, just enough to form a majority, and 63 new House seats to solidify their control there. Progressive statewide candidates trailed about 20% behind Roosevelt's vote. Almost all, including Albert Beveridge of Indiana, went down to defeat; the only governor elected was Hiram Johnson of California, who ran on the regular GOP ticket. A mere seventeen Bull Moosers were elected to Congress, and perhaps 250 to local office. Outside California, there was no real base to the party beyond the personality of Roosevelt himself. Roosevelt had scored a second-place finish, but he trailed so far behind Wilson that everyone realized his party would never win the White House. With the poor performance at state and local levels in 1912, the steady defection of top supporters, the failure to attract any new support, and a pathetic showing in 1914, the Bull Moose party disintegrated. Some leaders, such as Harold Ickes of Chicago, supported Wilson in 1916. Most followed Roosevelt back into the GOP, which in 1916 nominated Charles Evans Hughes. The ironies were many: Taft had been Roosevelt's hand-picked successor in 1908 and the split between the two men was ideological. No compromise was possible on issues like the independence of the judiciary. Roosevelt's schism allowed the conservatives to gain control of the Republican party and left Roosevelt and his followers drifting in the wilderness for decades. Image:River-doubt-team.jpg

South American expedition

Just as Roosevelt, after his first administration, had gone to Africa in search of adventure, so also, after his failed attempt at regaining the White House, TR found himself on another adventure. On this trip, however, he would get far more drama than he had bargained for.

While his popular book Through the Brazilian Wilderness describes his expedition into the Brazilian jungle in 1913 as a member of the Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition co-named after its leader, Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon, perhaps in the interest of the scientific aspects of the expedition, it gives readers already familiar with TR's travels, the trip's proverbial "good news" of scientific discovery, scenic tropical vistas and exotic flora, fauna and wild life, unfortunately the reader does not get the story's "bad news" - an expedition that went terribly awry and involved enormous hardship, intense suffering, death and even a brutal murder.

A friend, Father John Augustine Zahm, always an enegetic powerhouse, had searched for new adventures and found them in the forests of South America. After briefing TR on several of his own expeditions, he got TR to commit to such an expedition in 1912. To finance the expedition TR got support from the American Museum of Natural History, promising to bring back many new animal specimens. Once in South America, a new far more ambitious goal would be added to original simple, to find start at the headwaters of the Rio da Duvida, the River of Doubt and trace it all the way north to the Madiera and thence to the Amazon. It would subsequently later renamed Rio Roosevelt in honor of the President. TR's crew consisted of his 24-year-old son Kermit, Colonel Cândido Rondon , a naturalist sent by the American Museum of Natural History named George K. Cherrie, Brazilian Lieutenant Joao Lyra, team physician Dr. José Antonio Cajazeira, and sixteen highly skilled paddlers, or camaradas in Portuguese. The initial expedition started, probably unwisely, on December 9, 1913, at the height of the rainy season. The trip up the River of Doubt started on the February 27, 1913.

Image:TR & Rondon River of Doubt in Canoe 1913.jpg While the expedition started well, the change in the trip's itinerary to trace the River of Doubt introduced a much more complicated set of challenges, not originally anticipated. On that trip up the River of Doubt, the difficulties of the harsh climate with its torrential downpours, incredibly rough terrain, unseaworthy low-running dugout canoes, a seemingly endless series of difficult rapids and waterfalls, diminishing food supplies, the drowning of one expedition member and the murder of another and a host of other problems turned what began as a scientific expedition into a race against time to save the Roosevelt's life from a severe infection and tropical diseases. Malaria and a serious infection resulting from a minor leg wound had developed into a life-threatening situation. These illnesses so weakened Roosevelt, that by six weeks into the expedition, he had to be attended day and night by the expedition's physician, Dr. Cajazeira and his son, Kermit. By this time, Roosevelt considered his own condition a threat to the survival of the others. At one point, his son, Kermit had to talk him out his wish to be left behind so as not to slow down the expedition, now with only a few weeks rations left. TR was having chest pains when he tried to walk, his temperature soared to 103 and, at times he was delirious. He was, by now, so weakened that he could not even sit up in his dugout but had to lie almost on his back. When the expedition reached civilization, Roosevelt had to be carried by off by stretcher. He had lost over fifty pounds. Kermit and all the expedition's members' physical conditions had suffered as well. In the final analysis, without the constant support of Dr. Cajazeira, and Rindon's leadership, Roosevelt would have perished. Without Kermit's rope and canoe-handling skills that preserved the dugouts from destruction, (the one thing that would have fatally ended the expedition), his unflinching courage, dogged determination, - in short, the devotion and loving support of a dedicated son, Kermit Roosevelt, it is unlikely that anyone, including TR would have survived the expedition.

Upon his return by ship to New York, friends and family were startled by Roosevelt's physical appearance, for he was no longer the vibrant man with a seemigly endless supply of energy that they had always known. Roosevelt would write a friend that the trip had cut his life short by ten years. He might not have really known just how accurate that analysis would prove to be for the effects of the South America expedition had so greatly weakened TR that they significantly contributed to his declining health. For the rest of his life, he would be plagued by flareups of malaria and inflammation so severe that they would require hospitalization. <ref name="lion"/><ref>Thayer, Chapter XXIII, pp. 4–7.</ref>

When Roosevelt had recovered enough of his strength, he found that he had a new battle on his hands. In professional circles, there was doubt about his claims of having discovered and navigated a completly uncharted river over 625 miles (1,000 km) long. TR would have to defend himself and win international recognition of the expedition's newly-named Rio Roosevelt. Toward this end, Roosevelt went to Washington, DC, and spoke at a standing-room-only convention to defend his discovery. His official report and its defense silenced the critics and TR was able to triumphantly return to his home in Oyster Bay.

Despite his weakened condition and slow recovery from his South America expedition, Roosevelt continued to write with great passion on subjects ranging from foreign policy to the importance of the national park system. In all, Roosevelt wrote about 18 books (each in several editions), including his Autobiography, Rough Riders and histories of the Naval Academy, ranching and wildlife, which are still in use today.

Roosevelt and the First World War

Roosevelt angrily complained about the foreign policy of President Woodrow Wilson, calling it "weak". When World War I began in 1914, Roosevelt strongly supported Britain, France and the Allies of World War I because he admired their fight for civilization; he demanded a harsher policy against Germany, especially regarding submarine warfare. In 1916 he campaigned energetically for Hughes and repeatedly denounced those Irish-Americans and German-Americans whose pleas for neutrality Roosevelt said were unpatriotic because they put the interest of Ireland and Germany ahead of America's. He insisted that one had to be 100% American, not a "hyphenated-American" who juggled multiple loyalties. When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, Roosevelt sought to raise a volunteer division, but Wilson refused. <ref>Brands 781-4</ref> Roosevelt's attacks on Wilson helped the Republicans win control of Congress in the elections of 1918. Had Roosevelt remained alive and healthy, he might have contested the 1920 GOP nomination, but his health was broken by 1918 due to tropical disease. The death of his son, Quentin, a daring pilot with the American forces in France, in 1918 after being shot down behind German lines, greatly distressed him. Quentin was his youngest son and probably the most like him. It is said that TR never got over his death.

Last years

Despite the setbacks from South American diseases and the death of his son, Theodore remained popular and upbeat to the end of his life. Always willing to take on some new cause and not afraid of the limelight his stands often brought hims. TR was an enthusiastic proponent of the Scouting movement. The Boy Scouts of America gave him the title of Chief Scout Citizen, the only person to hold such title. One early Scout leader said, "The two things that gave Scouting great impetus and made it very popular were the uniform and Teddy Roosevelt's jingoism." <ref>Larson, Keith (2006). "Theodore Roosevelt". Retrieved March 6, 2006.</ref> After his death, scouting leaders led annual pilgramages to his grave for several years.

On January 6, 1919, at the age of 60, Roosevelt died in his sleep of a coronary embolism at Oyster Bay, and was buried in Young's Memorial Cemetery. Upon receiving word of his death, his son, Archie, cabled his siblings simply, "The old lion is dead."

Personal life

Image:Theodore Roosevelt and family, 1903.jpg

Roosevelt was baptized in the family's church, part of the Reformed Church in America; he attended the Madison Square Presbyterian Church until the age of 16. Later in life, when Roosevelt lived at Oyster Bay he attended an Episcopal church with his wife. While in Washington he attended services at Grace Reformed Church. <ref>"The Religious Affiliation of Theodore Roosevelt U.S. President". Retrieved March 7, 2006.</ref> As President he firmly believed in the separation of church and state and thought it unwise to have In God We Trust on currency, because he thought it sacrilegious to put the name of the Deity on something so common as money. <ref>Reynolds, Ralph C. (1999). "In God We Trust: All Others Pay Cash". Retrieved March 7, 2006.</ref> He was also a Freemason, and regularly attended the Matinecock Lodge's meetings. He once said that "One of the things that so greatly attracted me to Masonry that I hailed the chance of becoming a Mason was that it really did act up to what we, as a government, are pledged to — namely to treat each man on his merit as a man." <ref>Matinecock Masonic Historical Society. "History". Retrieved March 12, 2006.</ref>

Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in pursuing what he called "the strenuous life." To this end, he exercised regularly and took up boxing, tennis, hiking, rowing, polo, and horseback riding. As Governor of New York, he boxed with sparring partners several times a week, a practice he regularly continued as President until one blow detached his left retina, leaving him blind in that eye. Thereafter, he practiced jujutsu and continued as well his habit of skinny-dipping in the Potomac River during winter. <ref>Thayer, Chapter XVII, pp. 22–24.</ref> <ref>Shaw, K.B. & Maiden, David (2006). "Theodore Roosevelt". Retrieved March 7, 2006.</ref> He was an ethusiastic Single Stick player and, according to Harper's Weekly in 1905 showed up at a White House reception with his arm bandaged after a bout with General Leonard Wood. <ref>Amberger, J Christoph, Secret History of the Sword Adventures in Ancient Martial Arts 1998, ISBN 1-892515-04-0. </ref>

Image:TeddyRoosevelHouse.JPG At the age of 22, Roosevelt married his first wife, 19-year-old Alice Hathaway Lee. Their marriage ceremony was held on October 27, 1880, at the Unitarian Church in Brookline, Massachusetts. Alice was the daughter of the prominent banker George Cabot Lee and Caroline Haskell Lee. The couple first met in 1878; he finally proposed in June 1879, though Alice waited another six months before accepting the proposal; their engagement was announced on Valentine's Day 1880. Alice Roosevelt died shortly after the birth of their first child, whom they also named Alice. In a tragic coincidence, his mother died on the same day as his wife at the Roosevelt family home in Manhattan - ironically - on Valentine's Day 1884.

In 1886, he married Edith Carow. They had five children: Theodore Jr., Kermit, Ethel Carow, Archibald Bulloch "Archie", and Quentin. Although Roosevelt's father was also named Theodore Roosevelt, he died while the future president was still childless and unmarried, and the future President Roosevelt took the suffix of Sr. and subsequently named his son Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. Because Roosevelt was still alive when his grandson and namesake was born, said grandson was named Theodore Roosevelt III, and consequently the president's son retained the Jr. after his father's death.


Image:MtRushmore TR close.JPG For his gallantry at San Juan Hill, Roosevelt was recommended for the Medal of Honor, but his subsequent telegrams to the War Department about the delays in returning American troops from Cuba doomed his chances. In the late 1990s, supporters of Roosevelt again took up the flag on behalf of his getting the MOH. This was not without controversy as the elements within the US Army as well as the National Archives were opposed. Nevertheless, on January 16, 2001, President Bill Clinton posthumously awarded Theodore Roosevelt the Medal of Honor, for his charge up San Juan Hill, in Cuba, during the Spanish-American War. The Roosevelts thus became one of only two father-son pairs to receive this honor. Roosevelt's eldest son, Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., was awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroism at Normandy in 1944.

Roosevelt, together with George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln, was chosen by President Calvin Coolidge to be depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial. In honor of his service to his nation and in particular to the United States Navy, two ships have been named for Roosevelt. The first was a George Washington class submarine in commission from 1961 to 1982; the second is a Nimitz class aircraft carrier on active duty in the Atlantic Fleet since 1986.


Overall, historians credit Roosevelt for his accomplishments in changing the nation's political system by putting the presidency at the center and making personality as important as the issues. In terms of issues his accomplishments were modest, and concentrated in the areas of trust-busting and conservationism. However, he has also been criticized for his interventionist and imperialist approach to nations he considered "uncivilized". His charisma and heroism, which made him a larger than life figure in his day, have also endured. His friend historian Henry Adams proclaimed, "Roosevelt, more than any other living man ....showed the singular primitive quality that belongs to ultimate matter — the quality that mediaeval theology assigned to God — he was pure act." Historians typically rank Roosevelt among the top five presidents. <ref>The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia (2005). "Biography: Impact and Legacy". Retrieved March 7, 2006.</ref><ref>"Legacy". Retrieved March 7, 2006.</ref>


When friends asked if he could rein in his elder daughter, Roosevelt said, "I can be President of the United States, or I can control Alice. I cannot possibly do both." <ref name="lion"/> In turn, Alice said of him that he always wanted to be "the bride at every wedding and the corpse at every funeral." (Some sources attribute this quote to one of Roosevelt's sons instead.) <ref>Thayer, Chapter XIII, p. 7.</ref> His many enthusiastic interests and limitless energy led one ambassador to wryly explain, "You must always remember that the President is about six." <ref>Kennedy, Robert C. (2005). "'I hear there are some kids in the White House this year'". Retrieved March 6, 2006.</ref>


Roosevelt tried but failed in 1906 to advance the cause of simplified spelling. He tried to force his government to adopt the system, sending an order to the Public Printer to use the system in all public documents. The order was obeyed, and among the documents thus printed was the President's special message regarding the Panama Canal. Newspapers had a field day. The New York World translated the Thanksgiving Day proclamation:

When nerly three centuries ago, the first settlers kam to the kuntry which has bekom this great republik, tha confronted not only hardship and privashun, but terible risk of thar lives. . . . The kustum has now bekum nashnul and hallowed by immemorial usaj.

The reform annoyed, however, and it demanded he rescind the order, which he did. His friend literary critic Brander Matthews , one of the chief advocates of the reform, remonstrating with him for abandoning the effort. Roosevelt replied on December 16: "I could not by fighting have kept the new spelling in, and it was evidently worse than useless to go into an undignified contest when I was beaten. Do you know that the one word as to which I thought the new spelling was wrong -thru -- was more responsible than anything else for our discomfiture?" Next summer Roosevelt was watching a naval review when a launch marked "Pres Bot" chugged ostentatiously by. The President waved and laughed with delight.<ref>Pringle 465-7</ref>

Popular culture

As a charismatic President often considered larger than life, Roosevelt (or characters using his name loosely based on him) has appeared in numerous fiction books, television shows, films, and other media of popular culture. In the Scrooge McDuck comics by Keno Don Rosa, Roosevelt appears several times, often as the mentor of an adolescent Scrooge, teaching him the values of self-confidence and self-reliance. He is also a major character in Harry Turtledove's fictional Timeline-191 alternate history, along with Caleb Carr's novels The Alienist and The Angel of Darkness, and is the protagonist of Benito Cereno's Tales From the Bully Pulpit comic book. In the comic play and movie Arsenic and Old Lace part of the zany atmosphere is created by a character who holds the delusion that he is Theodore Roosevelt. The Sonic the Hedgehog villain Dr. Eggman was based on a design of Theodore Roosevelt wearing pajamas.

Roosevelt's lasting popular legacy is the stuffed toy bears (teddy bears), named after him following an incident on a hunting trip in 1902. Roosevelt famously refused to kill a black bear simply for the sake of making a kill. Bears and later bear cubs became closely associated with Roosevelt in political cartoons thereafter. <ref>"History of the Teddy Bear". Retrieved March 7, 2006.</ref>


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See also




Other references

Primary sources

  • Brands, H.W. ed. The Selected Letters of Theodore Roosevelt. (2001)
  • Harbaugh, William ed. The Writings Of Theodore Roosevelt (1967). A one-volume selection of Roosevelt's speeches and essays.
  • Hart, Albert Bushnell and Herbert Ronald Ferleger, eds. Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia (1941), Roosevelt's opinions on many issues.
  • Morison, Elting E., John Morton Blum, and Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., eds., The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, 8 vols. (1951-1954). Very large, annotated edition of letters from TR.
  • Roosevelt, Theodore (1999). Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography. online at
  • Roosevelt, Theodore. The Works of Theodore Roosevelt (National edition, 20 vol. 1926); 18,000 pages containing most of TR's speeches, books and essays, but not his letters; a CD-ROM edition is available; some of TR's books are available online through Project Bartleby
  • Theodore Roosevelt books and speeches on Project Gutenberg

Secondary Sources

  • Beale Howard K. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power. (1956).
  • Blum, John Morton The Republican Roosevelt. (1954). Series of essays that examine how TR did politics
  • Brands, H.W. Theodore Roosevelt (2001)
  • Cooper, John Milton The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt. (1983) a dual biography
  • Dalton, Kathleen. Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life. (2002)
  • Gould, Lewis L. The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. (1991)
  • Harbaugh, William Henry. The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt. (1963)
  • Keller, Morton, ed., Theodore Roosevelt: A Profile (1967) excerpts from TR and from historians.
  • McCullough, David. Mornings on Horseback, The Story of an Extraordinary Family. a Vanished Way of Life, and the Unique Child Who Became Theodore Roosevelt. (2001)
  • Morris, Edmund The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. (1979); vol 2: Theodore Rex. (2001)
  • Mowry, George. The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America, 1900-1912. (1954)
  • Mowry, George E. Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement. (2001)
  • O'Toole, Patricia. When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt After the White House (2005)
  • Pringle, Henry F. Theodore Roosevelt (1932; 2nd ed. 1956)
  • Putnam, Carleton Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography, Volume I: The Formative Years (1958), only volume published, to age 28.
  • Rhodes, James Ford Rhodes. The McKinley and Roosevelt Administrations, 1897-1909 (1922)

External links

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