From Free net encyclopedia

This article is about the Capital city of Vietnam. For the puzzle game, see Tower of Hanoi.
Name:Thành Phố Hà Nội
Meaning:"River Interior"
Region:Red River Delta
Population:3,083,800 (as of October,2004)
Ethnicities:Viet, Hoa

Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Nội; Han tu: 河内), estimated population 3,083,800 (2004), is the capital of Vietnam and was the capital of North Vietnam from 1954 to 1976. Before that, it had served as the capital of the entity now known as Vietnam from at least the 11th century until 1802 (with a few brief interruptions). The city is located on the right bank of the Red River. Manufactures include machine tools, plywood, textiles, chemicals, and handicrafts. Hanoi is located at 21°2' North, 105°51' East (21.0333, 105.85), 1,760 km north of Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon). [1]



Image:Hoan kiem hanoi 1999.jpg Through history, Hanoi was known by many names. During Chinese domination of Vietnam, it was known as Tống Bình (宋平) and later Long Đỗ. In 866, it was turned into a citadel and was named Đại La.

In 1010, Lý Thái Tổ, the first ruler of the Lý Dynasty (朝李, Triều Lý), moved the capital of Đại Việt (大越, the Great Viet, then the name of Vietnam) to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed it Thăng Long (升龍, Ascending dragon) - a name still used poetically to this day. It remained the capital of Vietnam until 1397, when the capital was moved to Thanh Hóa, also known as Tây Đô (西都, Western Capital). Thăng Long then became Đông Đô (東都, Eastern Capital).

In 1408, Vietnam was invaded by Chinese troops from the Ming Dynasty and Đông Đô was renamed Đông Quan (東關, Eastern Gateway) by the Chinese. In 1428, Vietnam was liberated from Chinese rule by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Le Dynasty (朝黎, Triều Lê) and Đông Quan was renamed Đông Kinh (東京, Eastern Capital - the name known to Europeans as Tonkin; and evidently, the same characters used for Tokyo). During the Tây Sơn Dynasty, it was named Bắc Thành (北城, Northern Citadel).

In 1802, when the Nguyễn Dynasty (朝阮, Triều Nguyễn) was established and then moved the capital down to present-day Huế, it was renamed Thăng Long. However, the second syllable of the toponym is actually a homonym of the word long, and so, actually suggests “to flourish” as opposed to “dragon”. Therefore, the name would then have appeared as 升隆, roughly to ascend and flourish. In 1831 the Nguyen Dynasty renamed it Hà Nội (can be translated as Between Rivers or River Interior) . Hanoi was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. It became the capital of French Indochina after 1887.

The city was occupied by the Japanese in 1940, and liberated in 1945, when it became the seat of Vietnam's government. From 1946 to 1954, it was the scene of heavy fighting between the French and Viet Minh forces. At that point, the city became the capital of an independent North Vietnam.

During the Vietnam War Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways, which were, however, promptly repaired. Following the end of the war, Hanoi became the capital of all Vietnam when North and South Vietnam were reunited on July 2, 1976.

In 2004, a massive part of the 900 years old citadel was discovered in central Hanoi, near the site of Ba Dinh square.

Places of interest

Image:Hanoi operahouse.jpg In the city are the Ho Chi Minh mausoleum, the National History Museum, the Revolution Museum, the Temple of Literature (Van Mieu), One Pillar Pagoda (Chua Mot Cot) and several historic monuments. The National Museum of Fine Art is also located in Hanoi. Image:Vietnam Hanoi HoChiMinhMausoleum.jpg The following medical facilities are located in Hanoi:

The Old Quarter is famous for its small artisans and merchants, including many silk shops.


Image:HanoiBikes.jpg Hanoi is served by Noi Bai International Airport, located in the Soc Son District, approximately 25 mi/40 km north of Hanoi. There are two main highways linking the airport and city. The highway from the airport to Thang Long Bridge is more direct than Highway 1, which runs along the outskirts of the city. Wartime damage and the depressed economy have left many of Hanoi's roads, bridges and railways in poor condition. Motor scooters, bicycles and rickshaws (cyclos) are the main modes of transportation, although the city also has many new, metered cabs.

There are four terminals at Noi Bai, including the domestic arrival, domestic departure, international arrival and international departure terminals. There is a separate building with a lounge for diplomatic VIP passengers. Government security forces control security at Noi Bai Airport.


Though representing only 3.6 percent of the country's population and 0.3 percent of the national territory, Hanoi contributes 8 percent to the national GDP and 45 percent of the Red River Delta's economy.

Industrial production in the city has experienced a rapid boom since the 1990s, with average annual growth of 19.1 percent from 1991-95, 15.9 percent from 1996-2000, and 20.9 percent during 2001-2003. In addition to eight existing industrial parks, Hanoi is building five new large-scale industrial parks and 16 small- and medium-sized industrial clusters. The non-State economic sector is expanding fast, with more than 25,000 businesses currently operating under the Enterprise Law.

Trade is another strong sector of the city. In 2003, Hanoi had 2,000 businesses engaged in foreign trade, having established ties with 161 countries and territories. The city's export value grew by an average 11.6 percent each year from 1996-2000 and 9.1 percent during 2001-2003. The economic structure also underwent important shifts, with tourism, finance and banking now playing an increasingly important role.

Agriculture, previously a pillar in Hanoi's economy, has striven to reform itself, introducing new high-yield plant varieties and livestock, and applying modern farming techniques.

Together with economic growth, Hanoi's appearance has also changed significantly, especially in recent years. Infrastructure is constantly being upgraded, with new roads and an improved public transportation system. The rate of telephone users was 30 per 100 people in 2003. New urban areas are growing rapidly, with 1.5 million square metres of housing constructed during 1996-2000 and 1.3 million square metres built in 2003 alone.

Social services have been developed in both scale and quality. The public healthcare network has been strengthened, ensuring at least one doctor for each commune and ward. Thanks to these accomplishments, Hanoi has the highest development index in the country. Movements such as raising donations for poor people or promoting a "cultural lifestyle", have received support from local people and been maintained.

External links


Template:Vietnamca:Hanoi cs:Hanoj da:Hanoi de:Hanoi et:Hanoi es:Hanói eo:Hanoi fa:هانوی fr:Hanoï ga:Ha Noi ko:하노이 io:Hanoi id:Hanoi it:Hanoi he:האנוי lt:Hanojus nl:Hanoi ja:ハノイ no:Hanoi nds:Hanoi pl:Hanoi pt:Hanói ru:Ханой simple:Hanoi sk:Hanoj sl:Hanoj fi:Hanoi sv:Hanoi th:ฮานอย tl:Hanoi vi:Hà Nội zh:河內