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|native_name = جمهورية تشاد
République du Tchad |conventional_long_name = Republic of Chad |common_name = Chad |image_flag = Flag of Chad.svg |image_coat = Chad coa.jpg |symbol_type=Coat of arms |image_map = LocationChad.png |national_motto = Unity - Work - Progress (French: Unité - Travail - Progrès) |national_anthem = La Tchadienne |official_languages = French, Arabic |capital = N'Djamena |latd=12 |latm=06 |latNS=N |longd=15 |longm=02 |longEW=E |largest_city = N'Djamena |government_type = Parliamentary democracy |leader_titles = President
Prime Minister |leader_names = Idriss Déby
Pascal Yoadimnadji |area_rank = 21st |area_magnitude = 1 E12 |area= 1,284,000 |areami²= 495,755 |percent_water = 1.9% |population_estimate = 9,826,419 |population_estimate_rank = 82nd |population_estimate_year = 2005 |population_census = |population_census_year = |population_density = 7 |population_densitymi² = 18 |population_density_rank = 180th |GDP_PPP = $12,835,000,000 |GDP_PPP_rank = 128th |GDP_PPP_year= 2004 |GDP_PPP_per_capita = $1,555 |GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 160th |sovereignty_type = Independence |established_events = Recognized
Constitution |established_dates = From France
August 11, 1960
March 31, 1996 |HDI = 0.341 |HDI_rank = 173rd |HDI_year = 2003 |HDI_category = low |currency = CFA franc |currency_code = XAF |country_code = TCD |time_zone = |utc_offset = +1 |time_zone_DST = |utc_offset_DST = +2 |cctld = .td |calling_code = 235 |footnotes = }} The Republic of Chad (Arabic:تشاد , Tašād; French: Tchad) is a landlocked country in central Africa. It borders Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest and Niger to the west. Due to its distance from the sea and its largely desert climate, the country is sometimes referred to as the "dead heart of Africa". In the north, it contains the Tibesti Mountains, the largest mountain chain in the Sahara desert. Chad was formerly part of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa.
Template:Main The area that today is Chad was once inhabited by a group of politically disconnected tribes. Humanoid skulls and cave paintings of great antiquity have been found there. Gradually relatively weak local kingdoms developed; these were later overtaken by the larger and more powerful Kanem-Bornu Empire.Later, foreigners came to have more influence in Chad. Beginning in the Middle Ages, Chad became a crossroads for Muslim traders and indigenous tribes. In 1900, after the battle of Kousséri, Chad became a part of France's colonial system.
In WWII, Chad was the first French colony to join the Free French and the Allies, under the leadership of its Governor, Félix Éboué. In 1960, Chad became an independent country, with François Tombalbaye as its first president.
Chad's post-independence history has been marked by instability and violence stemming mostly from tensions between the mainly Arab-Muslim north and the predominantly animist and Christian south.
In 1965 Muslim dissatisfaction with President Tombalbaye - a Christian southerner - developed into a guerrilla war. This, combined with a severe drought, undermined his rule and, in 1975, President Tombalbaye was killed in a coup led by Noël Milarew Odingar, who immediately passed power to yet another southerner, general Félix Malloum. Malloum, too, failed to end the war, notwithstanding his cooptation as Prime Minister in 1978 of the insurgent leader Hissène Habré, head of the Armed Forces of the North (FAN), and was in 1979 replaced by a Libyan-backed northerner, Goukouni Oueddei, while the country precipitated in the most anarchic phase of the Chadian Civil War. Image:Chad nasa satellite.png By this stage France and neighbouring Libya were intervening repeatedly to support one side against another. Habré in 1982 conquered the capital ousting President Oueddei, and assumed overall control of the state. His eight year reign led to immense political turmoil, with human rights organisations accusing him of having ordered the execution of thousands of political opponents and members of tribes thought hostile to his regime.
Libya invaded Chad in 1980, to help Oueddei remain in power and to forward an expansionist policy that projected to unify politically Libya and Chad. Before, The Libyans had already occupied a narrow strip of land known as the Aouzou Strip in 1972-73. France and the United States responded by aiding Habré in an attempt to contain Libya's regional ambitions under Muammar al-Qaddafi. Civil war deepened. In December, 1980 Libya occupied all of northern Chad, but Habré defeated Libyan troops and drove them out in November, 1981. In 1983, Qaddafi's troops occupied all of the country north of Koro Toro. The United States used a clandestine base in Chad to train captured Libyan soldiers, whom it tried to organize into an anti-Qaddafi force. Habré's aid from the USA and France helped him to win the war against Libya. The Libyan occupation of the north of Koro Toro ended when Habré defeated Qaddafi in 1987.
Despite this victory, Habré's government was weak and seemingly disliked by a majority of Chadians. He was deposed by Libyan-supported rebel leader Idriss Déby on December 1, 1990. Habré went into exile in Senegal. Déby installed himself as dictator. Soon after a constitution was written. Popular support for Déby was apparently shown in an election in May, 2001, where he defeated six other candidates with 67.3% of the vote. The election was described as being "reasonably fair", although there were some noted irregularities.
On December 23, 2005, Chad announced that it was in a "state of war" with Sudan. The Organisation of the Islamic Conference(OIC) has urged Sudan and Chad to exercise self-restraint to defuse growing tension between the two neighboring countries.
On February 8, 2006, Chad and Sudan signed the Tripoli Agreement, ending the Chadian-Sudanese conflict. This agreement prohibits either country from beginning media campaigns against one another, and also from interfering with the others internal affairs. 
On April 13 2006 rebels invaded the Capital, seeking to topple the Presidency of Idriss Déby. Government forces defeated them in the Battle of N'Djamena. Chad then accused Sudan of supporting and training the rebels, and severed diplomatic ties between the two countries.
Template:Election chad A strong executive branch headed by President Déby of the Patriotic Salvation Movement dominates the Chadian political system. Déby was elected constitutionally in 1996 and 2001, although international observers noted irregularities in the election process. The president of Chad was limited to two terms until Déby had that constitutional provision removed in 2005. The president is elected by universal suffrage for those over 18. The president has the power to appoint the prime minister (re-instated after the removal of Habré) and the Council of State (or cabinet), and exercises considerable influence over appointments of judges, generals, provincial officials and heads of Chad’s parastatal firms. Chad's legislative branch consists of a unicameral National Assembly. Its judicial branch consists of a Supreme Court, a Court of Appeal, criminal courts, and magistrate courts.
Since 2002, Chad has been divided into 18 regions, which are subdivided into 52 departments and further divided into 348 sub-prefectures. Implementation of the new plan has been slow on the ground, however. The regions approximately correspond with 14 prefectures which existed up to 1999.
The regions include: Batha, Bourkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guéra, Hadjer-Lamis (previously part of the Chari-Baguirmi Prefecture), Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul (previously part of the Moyen-Chari Prefecture), Mayo-Kebbi Est (previously part of Mayo-Kebbi), Mayo-Kebbi Ouest (previously part of Mayo-Kebbi), Moyen-Chari, Ndjamena, Ouaddaï, Salamat, Tandjilé, and Wadi Fira (previously Biltine).
Departments: see Departments of Chad
Chad is a landlocked country in north central Africa measuring 1,284,000 square kilometers (496,000 sq. mi.) south of Libya. Chad has 5,968 kilometers (3,708 mi) of border against Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Libya, Niger, Nigeria, and Sudan. Chad has four climatic zones: it has broad, arid plains in the center, desert in the north, dry mountains in the northwest, and tropical lowlands in the south. Only 3% of Chad is arable land and none of it has permanent crops. Environmental hazards in Chad include hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in the north, periodic droughts, and locust plagues. Lake Chad, which is in Chad and Cameroon, was once the second-largest lake in Africa but has shrunk dramatically during the last few decades and is now down to less than 10% of its former size. The people of Chad are known as Chadian. Image:Cd-map.png
Template:Main Chad's terrain is dominated by the low-lying Chad Basin (elevation about 250 m / 820 ft), which rises gradually to mountains and plateaus on the north, east, and south. In the east heights of more than 900 metres (3,000 ft) are attained in the Ennedi and Ouaddaï plateaus. The greatest elevations are reached in the Tibesti massif in the north, with a maximum height of 3,415 metres (11,204 ft) at Emi Koussi. The northern half of the republic lies in the Sahara. The only important rivers, the Logone and Chari (Shari), are located in the southwest and flow into Lake Chad. The lake doubles in size during the rainy season.
Template:Main Chad's primarily agricultural economy is being boosted by major oilfield and pipeline developments that began in 2000. Over 80% of Chad's population continues to rely on subsistence farming and stock raising for its livelihood. Cotton, and, in a far lesser measure, cattle and gum arabic, have, until recently, provided the bulk of Chad's export earnings, but Chad began to export oil in 2003 from three oilfields near Doba. It has been estimated that income from oil increased Chad's per capita GDP by 40% in 2004, and may double it in 2005.
Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, poor internal communications, high energy costs, scarce water resources and a history of instability. Until now, Chad has relied on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects but oil income will transform government finances.
A consortium, led by ExxonMobil (US), and with the participation of Chevron (US) and Petronas (Malaysia), invested $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves estimated at 1 billion barrels (0.2 km³) in southern Chad, and Chad became an oil-producing country in 2003, with the completion of a pipeline (financed in part by the World Bank) linking its southern oilfields to terminals on the Atlantic coast via neighbouring Cameroon. Chad hopes to avoid the waste and corruption experienced in some other African oil-producing countries; as a condition of its assistance, the World Bank has insisted on a new law which requires that 80% of oil revenues will be spent on development projects. However, in January 2006 the World Bank suspended its loan program to Chad, in reaction to the Chadian decision to "relax" laws governing the spending of oil money. Chad's response is that the World Bank is using Chad as a test subject for different management styles.
Provided stability is maintained, the outlook for Chad's economy is now better than it has ever been. It is known that further reserves of oil exist within the country, in addition to the oilfields that are already being exploited.
Template:Main There are more than 200 ethnic groups in Chad. Those in the north and east are generally Muslim; most southerners are animists or Christians, although such a north/south division glosses over the complex and nuanced tribal and religious relationships in Chad. Through their long religious and commercial relationships with Sudan and Egypt, many of the peoples in Chad's eastern and central regions have become more or less Arabized, speaking Chadian Arabic (see below) (although typically not literary Arabic) and engaging in many other Arab cultural practices as well. More than three-quarters of the Chadian population is rural.
Template:Main Chad is a very culturally diverse nation. Among the manifestations of this diversity is the extremely large number of languages spoken there. Although the only official languages in Chad are Arabic and French, there are also more than 100 tribal languages spoken and a dialect of Arabic known as Chadian Arabic is the closest thing the country has to a national trade language. Chadian Arabic is a mix of "literary" Arabic, French and local dialects. It differs from the country's official language, literary Arabic, and, while literary Arabic speakers can often understand Chad Arabic, the inverse is not true. Government schools are taught in the official languages, with French typically the language of instruction. Few Chadians other than the educated/traveled elite speak literary Arabic.
The largest ethnic group in Chad, the Christian/animist Sara peoples living in the south, only makes up 20% of the population. In central Chad, people are mostly nomadic and pastoralist. The mountainous north has a sparse, mostly Muslim population of mixed backgrounds. Each society in Chad (smaller than the groups described above) has developed their own religion, music, and folklore.
The largest Christian churches are the Roman Catholic Church, the Assemblées Chrétiennes du Tchad, the Eglise Baptiste du Tchad and the Eglises Evangeliques au Tchad. Template:Seealso List of writers from Chad, Day (language)
- Islam in Chad
- Roman Catholicism in Chad
- Communications in Chad
- Foreign relations of Chad
- Holidays in Chad
- Languages of Chad
- Military of Chad
- Transport in Chad
- Fédération du Scoutisme Tchadien
- Official site of the government (in French)
- BBC News Country Profile - Chad
- CIA World Factbook - Chad
- US State Department - Chad includes Background Notes, Country Study and major reports
- World Bank -- Chad Summary Data, Statistics & Sources
- World Bank -- Chad Data Profile
- Columbia University Libraries - Chad directory category of the WWW-VL
- Open Directory Project - Chad directory category
- Stanford University - Africa South of the Sahara: Chad directory category
- Yahoo! - Chad directory category
- Ryan Spencer Reed photojournalist's images of Sudan's displaced in Eastern Chad
- Chad Travel Blog penetrating narrative of travel through Chad
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